Written by The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica
maqām, (Arabic: “place of residence”), a spiritual stage that periodically marks the long path followed by Muslim mystics (Sufis) leading to the vision of and union with God. The Sufi progresses by means of his own mujāhadah (work, or self-mortification) and through the help and guidance of the masters (sheikhs). In each maqām the Sufi strives to purify himself from all worldly inclination and to prepare himself to attain an ever-higher spiritual level.
The order and number of the māqams are not uniform among all Sufis. The majority, however, agree on seven major maqāms:
(1) the maqām of tawbah (repentance), which does not mean remembrance of sins and atonement for them but rather forgetting them along with everything that distracts from the love of God;
(2) the maqām of waraʿ (fear of the Lord), which is not fear of hellfire but rather the dread of being veiled eternally from God;
(3) the maqām of zuhd (renunciation, or detachment), which means that the person is devoid of possessions and his heart is without acquisitiveness;
(4) the maqām of faqr (poverty), in which he asserts his independence of worldly possessions and his need of God alone;
(5) the maqām of ṣabr (patience), the art of steadfastness;
(6) the maqām of tawakkul (trust, or surrender), in which the Sufi knows that he cannot be discouraged by hardships and pain, for he is in total submission to God’s will and finds joy even in his sorrows;
(7) the maqām of riḍā (satisfaction), a state of quiet contentment and joy that comes from the anticipation of the long-sought union.