Islam Forbids Violent Rebellion Against An Unjust Muslim Ruler

Faith in Allah الإيمان بالله
There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger

Islam forbids violent rebellion against an unjust Muslim ruler
Abu Amina Elias • July 15, 2013

By Abu Amina Elias

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

It is not lawful for us to violently rebel against an unjust Muslim ruler. Rather, Muslims should be patient and encourage reform through non-violent action. Obedience to their laws is obligatory as long as we are not commanded to commit sins.

Allah said:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنكُمْ

O you who believe, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you.

Surat An-Nisa 4:59

In many narrations, the Prophet has forbidden us from rebelling against the rulers as long as they pray and allow Islam to be practiced in their lands.

Hudhayfa ibn al-Yaman reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

يَكُونُ بَعْدِي أَئِمَّةٌ لَا يَهْتَدُونَ بِهُدَايَ وَلَا يَسْتَنُّونَ بِسُنَّتِي وَسَيَقُومُ فِيهِمْ رِجَالٌ قُلُوبُهُمْ قُلُوبُ الشَّيَاطِينِ فِي جُثْمَانِ إِنْسٍ

Rulers after me will come who do not follow my guidance and my tradition (sunnah). Some of their men will have the hearts of devils in a human body.

I said, “O Messenger of Allah, what should I do if I live to see that time?” The Prophet said:

تَسْمَعُ وَتُطِيعُ لِلْأَمِيرِ وَإِنْ ضُرِبَ ظَهْرُكَ وَأُخِذَ مَالُكَ فَاسْمَعْ وَأَطِعْ

You should listen and obey them even if the ruler strikes your back and takes your wealth, even still listen and obey.

Source: Sahih Muslim 1847, Grade: Sahih

Awf ibn Malik reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

خِيَارُ أَئِمَّتِكُمْ الَّذِينَ تُحِبُّونَهُمْ وَيُحِبُّونَكُمْ وَيُصَلُّونَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَتُصَلُّونَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَشِرَارُ أَئِمَّتِكُمْ الَّذِينَ تُبْغِضُونَهُمْ وَيُبْغِضُونَكُمْ وَتَلْعَنُونَهُمْ وَيَلْعَنُونَكُمْ

The best of your rulers are those whom you love and they love you, who pray for you and you pray for them. The worst of your rulers are those whom you hate and they hate you, whom you curse and they curse you.

It was said, “Shall we confront them with swords?” The Prophet said:

لَا مَا أَقَامُوا فِيكُمْ الصَّلَاةَ وَإِذَا رَأَيْتُمْ مِنْ وُلَاتِكُمْ شَيْئًا تَكْرَهُونَهُ فَاكْرَهُوا عَمَلَهُ وَلَا تَنْزِعُوا يَدًا مِنْ طَاعَةٍ

No, as long as they establish prayer among you. If you find something hateful from them, you should hate their actions but not withdraw your hand from obedience.

Source: Sahih Muslim 1855, Grade: Sahih

Umm Salamah reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

سَتَكُونُ أُمَرَاءُ فَتَعْرِفُونَ وَتُنْكِرُونَ فَمَنْ عَرَفَ بَرِئَ وَمَنْ أَنْكَرَ سَلِمَ وَلَكِنْ مَنْ رَضِيَ وَتَابَعَ

There will be rulers from whom you will see both goodness and corruption. One who recognizes their evil and hates it will maintain his innocence, but one who is pleased with it and follows them will be sinful.

It was said, “Shall we not fight them?” The Prophet said:

لَا مَا صَلَّوْا

No, as long as they pray.

Source: Sahih Muslim 1854, Grade: Sahih

Many of those who call for violent rebellion have resorted to the use of terrorism against innocent civilians. Such acts are completely rejected by Islam. The Prophet severely warned those who engage in acts of reckless and indiscriminate violence.

Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

مَنْ خَرَجَ مِنَ الطَّاعَةِ وَفَارَقَ الْجَمَاعَةَ فَمَاتَ مَاتَ مِيتَةً جَاهِلِيَّةً وَمَنْ قَاتَلَ تَحْتَ رَايَةٍ عُمِّيَّةٍ يَغْضَبُ لِعَصَبَةٍ أَوْ يَدْعُو إِلَى عَصَبَةٍ أَوْ يَنْصُرُ عَصَبَةً فَقُتِلَ فَقِتْلَةٌ جَاهِلِيَّةٌ وَمَنْ خَرَجَ عَلَى أُمَّتِي يَضْرِبُ بَرَّهَا وَفَاجِرَهَا وَلاَ يَتَحَاشَ مِنْ مُؤْمِنِهَا وَلاَ يَفِي لِذِي عَهْدٍ عَهْدَهُ فَلَيْسَ مِنِّي وَلَسْتُ مِنْهُ

Whoever rejects obedience to the ruler and divides the community and dies will have died upon ignorance. Whoever fights under the banner of one who is blind, raging for the sake of tribalism, or calling to tribalism, or supporting tribalism, and is killed will have died upon ignorance. Whoever rebels against my nation, striking the righteous and wicked alike and sparing not even the believers and does not fulfill the pledge of security, then he has nothing to do with me and I have nothing to do with him.

Source: Sahih Muslim 1848, Grade: Sahih

The righteous predecessors (salaf as-salih) recognized that the evil which comes through violent rebellion is worse than the evil of the ruler himself. For this reason, they counseled patience and wisdom in the face of injustice and they would pray for the ruler to be guided to righteousness.

Hasan Al-Basri said:

لَوْ أَنَّ النَّاسَ إِذَا ابْتُلُوا مِنْ قِبَلِ سُلْطَانِهِمْ صَبَرُوا مَا لَبِثُوا أَنْ يُفْرَجَ عَنْهُمْ وَلَكِنَّهُمْ يَجْزَعُونَ إِلَى السَّيْفِ فَيُوَكَّلُونَ إِلَيْهِ فَوَاللَّهِ مَا جَاءُوا بِيَوْمِ خَيْرٍ قَطُّ

If the people had patience when they are being tested by their unjust ruler, it will not be long before Allah will give them a way out. However, they always rush to their swords, so they are left with their swords. By Allah, not even for a single day did they bring about any good.

Source: Tabaqat Al-Kubra 8789

Fudayl ibn Iyad said:

لَوْ أَنَّ لِي دَعْوَةً مُسْتَجَابَةً مَا جَعَلْتُهَا إِلَّا فِي إِمَامٍ فَصَلَاحُ الْإِمَامِ صَلَاحُ الْبِلَادِ وَالْعِبَادِ

If I had one supplication to be answered, I would make it for no one but the ruler. If the ruler is righteous then it will lead to the righteousness of the country and the people.

Source: Siyar A’lam An-Nubula 8/434

At-Tahawi said:

وَلَا نَرَى الْخُرُوجَ عَلَى أَئِمَّتِنَا وَوُلَاةِ أُمُورِنَا وَإِنْ جَارُوا وَلَا نَدْعُو عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا نَنْزِعُ يَدًا مِنْ طَاعَتِهِمْ وَنَرَى طَاعَتَهُمْ مِنْ طَاعَةِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَرِيضَةً مَا لَمْ يَأْمُرُوا بِمَعْصِيَةٍ وَنَدْعُو لَهُمْ بِالصَّلَاحِ وَالْمُعَافَاةِ

We do not recognize the rebellion against our leader or those in charge of our affairs even if they are unjust, nor do we wish evil for them, nor do we refuse to follow them. We hold that obedience to them is part of obedience to Allah the Exalted and therefore obligatory as long as they do not command us to commit sins. We pray for their right guidance and pardon.

Source: Aqeedah At-Tahawi 91

Ahmad ibn Hanbal said:

لَا يُتَعَرَّضُ بِالسُّلْطَانِ فَإِنَّ سَيْفَهُ مَسْلُولٌ ، وَعَصَاهُ

Do not confront the ruler, for his sword is unsheathed.

Source: Jami’ Ulum wal Hikam 34

An-Nawawi summarizes the views of the righteous predecessors, saying:

وَأَمَّا الْخُرُوجُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَقِتَالُهُمْ فَحَرَامٌ بِإِجْمَاعِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَإِنْ كَانُوا فَسَقَةً ظَالِمِينَ وَقَدْ تَظَاهَرَتِ الْأَحَادِيثُ بِمَعْنَى مَا ذَكَرْتُهُ وَأَجْمَعَ أَهْلُ السُّنَّةِ أَنَّهُ لَا يَنْعَزِلُ السُّلْطَانُ بِالْفِسْقِ وَأَمَّا الْوَجْهُ الْمَذْكُورُ فِي كُتُبِ الْفِقْهِ لِبَعْضِ أَصْحَابِنَا أَنَّهُ يَنْعَزِلُ وَحُكِيَ عَنِ الْمُعْتَزِلَةِ أَيْضًا فَغَلَطٌ مِنْ قَائِلِهِ مُخَالِفٌ لِلْإِجْمَاعِ قَالَ الْعُلَمَاءُ وَسَبَبُ عَدَمِ انْعِزَالِهِ وَتَحْرِيمِ الْخُرُوجِ عَلَيْهِ مَا يَتَرَتَّبُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ مِنَ الْفِتَنِ وَإِرَاقَةِ الدِّمَاءِ وَفَسَادِ ذَاتِ الْبَيْنِ فَتَكُونُ الْمَفْسَدَةُ فِي عَزْلِهِ أَكْثَرَ مِنْهَا فِي بَقَائِهِ

As for rebelling against the ruler and fighting him, it is forbidden by consensus of the Muslims even if he is sinful and oppressive. I have mentioned many narrations with this meaning. The people of the Sunnah have agreed that the ruler should not be removed due to his sinfulness. As for the view mentioned in the books of jurisprudence from some of our companions that he should be removed, which is also the opinion of the Mu’tazilates, then it is a serious mistake from them and is in opposition to the consensus. The scholars have said the reason his removal and rebellion against him is forbidden is because of what that entails of tribulations, bloodshed, and corruption, for the harm in removing the ruler is greater than letting him remain.

Source: Sharh Sahih Muslim 1840

The primary evidence used to justify a violent rebellion against the ruler is the saying of Allah:

وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ

Whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed, then it is those who are the disbelievers.

Surat Al-Ma’idah 5:44

It is argued that if the Muslim ruler does not refer to the Sharia for judgment, or he does not apply the proper Sharia rulings, then he has become an unbeliever who should be killed. However, this interpretation is incorrect because the disbelief mentioned in this verse is the lesser disbelief that does not take the ruler out of the fold of Islam. This verse was never meant to justify rebellion.

At-Tabari reported: A man asked Ibn Abbas concerning this verse and he said:

إِذَا فَعَلَ ذَلِكَ فَهُوَ بِهِ كُفْر  وَلَيْسَ كَمَنْ كَفَرَ بِاَللَّهِ وَالْيَوْم الْآخِر وَبِكَذَا وَكَذَا

If the ruler does that, then there is unbelief in it, but this is not like one who disbelieves in Allah and the Last Day and so on.

Ata’ said:

كُفْر دُون كُفْر وَفِسْق دُون فِسْق وَظُلْم دُون ظُلْم

The verse means unbelief less than unbelief, wickedness less than wickedness, and oppression less than oppression.

Tawus said:

لَيْسَ بِكُفْرٍ يَنْقُل عَنْ الْمِلَّة

This is not the unbelief that rejects someone from the religion.

Source: Tafseer Al-Tabari 5:44

As such, if the ruler does not apply the Sharia properly, this is considered sinful but it does not justify violence. For this reason, Imam Muslim collected the narrations cited above under the following chapter heading:

وُجُوبِ الإِنْكَارِ عَلَى الأُمَرَاءِ فِيمَا يُخَالِفُ الشَّرْعَ وَتَرْكِ قِتَالِهِمْ مَا صَلَّوْا وَنَحْوِ ذَلِكَ

The obligation to denounce the rulers when they contradict the Sharia and to avoid fighting them as long as they pray and so on.

The proper way to enjoin good and forbid evil regarding the rulers is through non-violent preaching, advising, and if necessary, acts of civil disobedience.

Ahmad ibn Hanbal said:

التَّغْيِيرُ بِالْيَدِ لَيْسَ بِالسَّيْفِ وَالسِّلَاحِ

Changing evil with one’s hand is not done with swords or weapons.

Source: Jami’ Ulum wal Hikam 34

Muslims should sincerely advise the ruler using mild speech, preferably in private. This means to have an intention to guide and benefit the ruler, as he is a member of the Muslim community.

Tamim Ad-Dari reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

الدِّينُ النَّصِيحَةُ

Religion is sincerity.

We said, “To whom?” The Prophet said:

لِلَّهِ وَلِكِتَابِهِ وَلِرَسُولِهِ وَلِأَئِمَّةِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَعَامَّتِهِمْ

To Allah, His Book, His Messenger, the leaders of the Muslims, and their common people.

Source: Sahih Muslim 55, Grade: Sahih

Iyad ibn Ghanam reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

مَنْ أَرَادَ أَنْ يَنْصَحَ لِسُلْطَانٍ بِأَمْرٍ فَلَا يُبْدِ لَهُ عَلَانِيَةً وَلَكِنْ لِيَأْخُذْ بِيَدِهِ فَيَخْلُوَ بِهِ فَإِنْ قَبِلَ مِنْهُ فَذَاكَ وَإِلَّا كَانَ قَدْ أَدَّى الَّذِي عَلَيْهِ لَهُ

Whoever intends to advise one with authority, then he should not do so publicly. Rather, he should take him by the hand and advise him in seclusion. If he accepts the advice, then all is well. If he does not accept it, then he has fulfilled his duty.

Source: Musnad Ahmad 14909, Grade: Sahih

Similarly, Allah commanded Moses and Aaron, upon them be peace, to speak mildly to Pharaoh even though he was a great tyrant and unbeliever.

Allah said:

فَقُولَا لَهُ قَوْلًا لَّيِّنًا لَّعَلَّهُ يَتَذَكَّرُ أَوْ يَخْشَىٰ

Speak to him with gentle speech that perhaps he may be reminded or fear Allah.

Surat Ta Ha 20:44

If this is how Allah commanded them to speak to an evil dictator who was not a believer, then a Muslim ruler deserves even better treatment.

Even so, it may be necessary to become more vocal and forceful if the ruler is a stubborn oppressor. Speaking the truth to him in this case is a form of jihad without weapons.

Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudri reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

إِنَّ مِنْ أَعْظَمِ الْجِهَادِ كَلِمَةَ عَدْلٍ عِنْدَ سُلْطَانٍ جَائِرٍ

Verily, among the greatest of struggles is a word of justice in front of a tyrant.

Source: Sunan At-Tirmidhi 2174, Grade: Hasan

If the ruler commands us to commit sins, we should disobey him and not fulfill his command, although this should be done without violence. In other words, Muslims should engage in acts of civil disobedience rather than committing acts of oppression.

Ali reported: The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

لَا طَاعَةَ فِي مَعْصِيَةٍ إِنَّمَا الطَّاعَةُ فِي الْمَعْرُوفِ

There is no obedience to the leader involving disobedience to Allah. Verily, obedience is only for good conduct.

Source: Sahih Bukhari 6830, Grade: Sahih

Therefore, a Muslim should attempt to reform the ruler and enjoin good without resorting to violence. Violence and terrorism leads to the fracturing of Muslim society, which is even worse than the oppression of the rulers. Instead, Muslims must be patient and wise in the face of such injustice, and they should pray for Allah to guide the rulers to right conduct.

Success comes from Allah, and Allah knows best.

At-Tahawi on obedience with oppressive rulers
Is it required for Muslims to have one ruler?
Have Muslim rulers become unbelievers by applying secular laws?
Are suicide bombings lawful in Islam?
Defensive nature of armed jihad in Islam
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Related
At-Tahawi on obedience with oppressive rulers
June 30, 2014
In “Wisdom الحكمة”
Is it required for Muslims to have one ruler?
February 3, 2015
In “Wisdom الحكمة”
Have Muslim rulers become unbelievers by applying secular laws?
January 25, 2015
In “Faith الإيمان”

Filed in: Wisdom الحكمة • Tags: Aaron هارون, An-Nawawi النووي, Call to Islam الدعوة, Community الجماعة, Enjoin Good الأمر بالمعروف, Excommunication التكفير, Forbearance حلم, Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal أحمد بن حنبل, Jihad الجهاد, Manners الأدب, Methodology منهاج, Moderation الوسطية, Moses موسى, Patience صبر, Pharaoh الفرعون, Prayer الصلاة, Prophetic Biography السيرة, Public Welfare مصلحة, Quran Exegesis التفسير, Reform الإصلاح, Righteous Predecessors السلف, Sharia الشريعة, Terrorism إرهاب, Unbelief كفر
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Modesty حياء
Moses موسى
Neighbors الجيران
Night of Decree ليلة القدر
Noah نوح
Obedience طاعة
Paradise الجنة
Parents الوالدين
Patience صبر
Peace السلام
People of the Book أهل الكتاب
Pharaoh الفرعون
Prophetic Biography السيرة
Prophetic Virtues المناقب النبوية
Providence القدر
Provision رزق
Public Trust أمانة
Public Welfare مصلحة
Purification تزكية
Quran Exegesis التفسير
Ramadan رمضان
Reason عقل
Rebels الخوارج
Reconciliation الإصلاح بين الناس
Reform الإصلاح
Reliance التوكل
Remembrance الذكر
Repentance توبة
Reverence خشوع
Righteous Predecessors السلف
Satan شيطان
Scriptures الكتب
Sharia الشريعة
Shu’aib شعيب
Sincerity إخلاص
Slavery استعباد
Solomon سليمان
Supplication دعاء
Temperance الزهد
Terrorism إرهاب
Trade بيع
Truthfulness صدق
Umar Ibn Al-Khattab عمر بن الخطاب
Umrah Pilgrimage العمرة
Unbelief كفر
Uthman ibn Affan عثمان بن عفان
Veiling الحجاب
Virgin Mary مريم
Virtue فضيلة
Women النساء
Worldly Life الحياة الدنيا
Zechariah زكريا
Daily Hadith

Ibn Sireen on Hearts: Allah guides the pure hearts of his servants to moral and spiritual truth
Ali on Adultery: No punishment for the woman forced into adultery
Abu Darda on Reflection: Spiritual contemplation for an hour is better than night prayer
Abu Darda on Character: A Muslim has good character until he enters Paradise with it
David on Faith: The virtues of tranquility, faith, and forgiveness
Hadith on Relationships: If you are good with Allah, then you will be good with people
Hadith on Politeness: Friendly and polite behavior is charity
Hadith on Kindness: The Prophet would show kindness to the worst of people
Links about Islam

Quran.com
Sunnah.com
Amman Message
A Common Word
Moderate Ummah
Al-Tafsir
Al-Islam (Arabic)
Al-Eman (Arabic)
Dorar.net (Arabic)
Resources

Quran on YouTube
Forty Hadith on YouTube
Forty Hadith Nawawi
Forty Sacred Hadith Qudsi
Aqeedah At-Tahawi
Umdat fil Fiqh
Riyad us-Saliheen
© 2016 Faith in Allah الإيمان بالله

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