CONTRADICTIONS AND DISCREPANCIES                               AMONG THE FOUR GOSPELS 

                                                          — 5 —                         

                        CONTRADICTIONS AND DISCREPANCIES 

                                   AMONG THE FOUR GOSPELS 

The errors, contradictions and interpolations seen in the existing Gospels are uncountably numerous. Many of them are explained in the book  Iz-hâr-ul-haqq.  Also, there is extensive and detailed information in this respect in books that were written and are still being written and published by a number of German orientalists such as Joizer, Davis, Miel, Kepler, Maçe, Bred Schneider, Griesbach Huge, Lesinag, Herder, Straus, Haus, Tobian, Thyl, Carl Butter, and many others. Here we shall only mention a few of them. 

There is a great difference between the Gospels of Matthew and Luke concerning the ancestors of Îsâ ‘sall-allâhu alâ Nebiyyinâ wa alaihi wa sallam’. 

In the Gospel of Matthew, the following names are written as the ancestors of Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’: 

“Ibrahim (Abraham), Is-haq (Isaac), Ya’qûb (Jacob), Yahûdâ (Judas), Fâris (Pha’res), Hazron (Es’rom), Irâm (A’ram), Aminadab (A-min’a-dab), Nahshon (Naas’son), Salmon (Sal’mon), Buaz (Bo’oz), Obid (O’bed), Yesse (Jesse), Dâwûd (David), Suleymân (Solomon), Rehobeam (Robo’am), Abiya (A-bi’a), Asâ (Asa), Yehashafat (Jos’a-phat), Yorâm (Joram), Uzziyâ (O-zi’as), Yotam (Jo’a-tham), Ahaz (A’chaz), Hazkiyâ (Ez-e-ki’as), Manassa (Manas’ses), Amon (A’mon), Yoshiâ (Jo-si’as), Yaqonyâ (Jech-o-ni’as), Shaltoil (Sala’thi-el),[1] Zarubâbel (Zo-rob’a-bel), Abihûd (A-bi’ud), Alyâkim (E-li’a-kim), Azor (Azor), Sâdok (Sa’doc), Ahim (A’chim), Elliud (E-li’ud), Eliazar (E-le-a’zar), Mattan (Mat’than), Ya’qûb (Jacob), Yûsuf (Joseph) (Maryam’s husband).” (Matt.: 1-1 thr. 16) 

On the other hand, in the twenty-third and later verses of the third chapter of the Gospel of Luke the following names are written: “Târûh (Tha’ra), Ibrâhîm (Abraham), Is-haq (Isaac), 

[1] Here, again, like in the Gospel of Luke, sala’thi-el is represented as the father of Zo-rob’a-bel, which is wrong.
 

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Ya’qûb (Jacob), Yahûdâ (Juda), Fâris (Pha’res), Hasron (Es’rom), Arâm (A’ram), Aminadab (A-min’adab), Nahshon (Na-as’son), Salmon (Sal’mon), Buaz (Bo’oz), Obid (O’bed), Yesse (Jesse), Dâwûd (David), Nâtân (Nathan), Mattatha (Mat’ta-tha), Mînân (Me-nan), Milya (Me’le-a), Alyakîm (E-li’a-kim), Yonan (Jo’nan), Yûsuf (Joseph), Yahûdâ (Juda), Sem’ûn (Simeon), Lâvî (Levi), Met-thâd (Mat’that), Yorîm (Jo’rim), Eliazâr (E-li-e’zer), Yushâ (Jo’se), Eyr (Er), Almodam (El-mo’dam), Kosam (Co’sam), Addi (Ad’di), Melkî (Mel’chi), Neyrî (Ne’ri), Shaltoil (Sa-la’thi-el), Zerubâbel (Zo-rob’a-bel), Risa (Rhe’sa), Yuhannâ (Jo-an’na), Yahûdâ (Juda), Yûsuf (Joseph), Shemî (Sem’e-i), Mattathiya (Mat-ta-thi’as), Mahat (Ma’ath), Nâdjay (Nag’ge), Heslî (Es’li), Nahum (Na’um), Amos (Amos), Metasiya (Mat-ta-thi’as), Yûsuf (Joseph), Yannâ (Jan’na), Melkî (Mel’chi), Lâvî (Levi), Met-that (Mat’that), Heli (He’li), Yûsuf (Joseph) (Maryam’s husband).” (Luke: 3-23 thr. 34) 

1 — According to Matthew, Yûsuf (who is said to be the father of Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm) is the son of Ya’qûb. According to Luke, he is the son of Helî. Matthew is a person close to Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’. And Luke is a disciple of Peter’s. They are supposed to be the people to study and observe a person close to them, and yet they seem to fall short of making investigation wholesome enough to write correctly the name of a person who they say was the grandfather of Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’; now, who on earth will trust or believe their other narratives? 

2 — According to Matthew, Suleymân ‘alaihis-salâm’ is the son of Dâwûd ‘alaihis-salâm’. And according to Luke the son of Dâwûd ‘alaihis-salâm’ is Nâtân, not Suleymân ‘alaihis-salâm’. 

3 — Matthew says that Shaltoil is the son of Yaqunyâ. But Luke says he is the son of Neyrî. In Matthew, the name of Zerubâbel’s son is Abihûd, whereas in Luke it is Risâ. What is equally startling is that in the nineteenth verse of the third chapter of the Akhbâr-i-eyyâm Safar-i-ûlâ, that is, of the First Chronicles, the names of Ze-rub’ba-bel’s sons are written as Meshul’lam and Han-a-ni’ah.[1] There is no mention of A-bi’ud or Rhe’sa there. 

4 — According to the seventeenth verse of the first chapter of Matthew, the grandfathers attributed to Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ from Ibrâhîm ‘alaihis-salâm’ to Yûsuf-u-Najjâr (Joseph the Carpenter), make up forty-two generations. The names given above, 

[1] I Chr: 3-19
  

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nevertheless, count only forty. According to Luke’s account, on the other hand, the number reaches fifty-five. 

From the time when the Gospels first appeared to our time, Christian scholars have remained in utter perplexity as to this question. Some of them made such untenable explanations as would not be admitted by anyone with common sense. For this reason, scholars such as Eckharn, Keiser, Haisee, Ghabuth, Wither, Fursen, etc. admitted the fact by saying that “These Gospels contain lots of contradictions pertaining to meaning.” This is the truth of the matter. For inconsistencies and errors are not only in this matter but also in all the other matters. 

Isâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ came to this world without a father. Nevertheless, while Jews persistently calumniate him by calling him an illegitimate child [May Allâhu ta’âlâ protect us from saying so!], Christians attribute a paternal case history to him and accept Yûsuf as his father, though he is not his father; this is a consternating ignorance and a paradoxical state. In Qur’ân alkerîm, the âyats concerning Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ use such terms as “Îsâ ibn Maryam,” which means “Îsâ the son of Maryam.” It is declared clearly in the Qur’ân al-kerîm that Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ did not have a father. 

5 — It is written as follows in the twenty-second and twenty-third verses of the first chapter of Matthew: 

“Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying,” (Matt: 1:22) 

“Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Em-man’uel, which being interpreted is, God with us.” (ibid: 1:23) 

According to Christian priests, by the word ‘Prophet’, Îshâyâ (Isaiah) ‘alaihisalâm’ is meant. As an evidence for this, they put forward the fourteenth verse of the seventh chapter of the Book of Isaiah, which reads, 

“Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign; Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Im-man’u-el.” (Is: 7:14) 

Rahmatullah Efendi explains this matter in detail in his book  Iz-hâr-ul-haqq.  He states that their inference is wrong for three reasons:

First;  the word which the translators of the Gospel and the translator of the Book of Isaiah translated as  azrâ  (=virgin) is ’ilmatun,  which is the feminine gender of the word  ’ilm (=knowledge). According to Jewish scholars the meaning of this word is  young woman.  They say that this term is also used to mean  married woman,  whether virginal or not, in the thirtieth chapter of the Sifr-ul-emthâl (Proverbs of Solomon). In the three
 

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Greek versions of the Book of Isaiah translated by persons named Ikola, Thedusien, and Semiks, this term is interpreted as (young woman). These translations, according to Christian clergy, are quite old; it is narrated that the first was translated in 129, the second in 175, and the third in 200. All these translations, especially the Thedusien, were warmly accepted by the early Christians. Therefore, according to Jewish scholars and the interpretations of these three translators, the expression used by Matthew is apparently wrong. Fery, in his discourse on the Hebrew lexicon in a book of his which is popular and accepted among Protestant priests, says that this word, i.e. (Azrâ), means (young woman). They (Protestants) say that according to this explanation the two meanings are common in this word. Yet the native speakers of the language, i.e. the Jews, in response to this interpretation of the priests, state that firstly Matthew’s expression is wrong and secondly translating the word as  Azrâ (=virginal woman), which runs counter to the early translations of the Jewish interpretations, requires sound proofs. The priest who wrote the book  Mîzân-ul-haqq  says in his book  Hall-ul-eshkal that the meaning of the word is certainly Azrâ; he is wrong. The two evidences we have mentioned above would suffice to refute him. 

Second;  the twentieth verse of the first chapter of Matthew reads as follows: 

“But while he thought on these things, behold, the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream, saying, Joseph, thou son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife: for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost.” (Matt: 1:20) 

And the twenty-fourth and twenty-fifth verses say: 
“Then Joseph being raised from sleep did as the angel of the Lord had bidden him, and took unto him his wife:” (Matt: 1:24) 
“And knew her not till she had brought forth her firstborn son: and he called his name JESUS.” (ibid: 1:25) 

The first chapter of Luke, on the other hand, states that the angel was seen by hadrat Maryam herself. According to the thirty-first verse of the same chapter, the angel said to hadrat Maryam: 
“And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS.” (Luke: 1:31) 

While Matthew states that the angel appeared to Joseph in his dream, Luke says that hadrat Maryam saw the angel in person. 
Furthermore, it is written as follows in the twenty-third verse of the first chapter of the Gospel of Matthew: 

“Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and shall call his
  

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name Em-man’u-el, …” (Matt: 1:23) 
This is, at the same time, the fourteenth verse of the seventh chapter of the Book of Isaiah. It is wrong, because Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ never said that his name was Em-man’u-el. 

Third;  the following episode prevents the naming of Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ as Em-man’u-el: When Râsîn (Rezin, or Rasun), the Aramean ruler, and Fâqâh (Pekah), the Israelite ruler, brought their armies together in Jerusalem in order to fight the Judah ruler, Âhâz bin Yûsân was alarmed by their alliance. Jenâb-i Haqq inspired Isaiah ‘alaihis-salâm’ to calm Âhâz. So he gave Âhâz the good news: 
“O thou Âhâz! Don’t be afraid! They cannot beat you. Their sovereignties will soon be destroyed and perish.” 

He also stated its harbinger as follows: 

“A young woman shall become pregnant and have a son. Before this boy distinguishes between good and bad the empires of these two monarchs shall become annihilated.” 

Fâqâh’s sovereignty was destroyed exactly twenty-one years after this news. Then this boy must have been born before the annihilation of Fâqâh’s sovereignty. On the other hand the birth of Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ took place seven hundred and twenty-one years after the annihilation of Fâqâh’s country. Therefore, people of the book fell into disagreement as to the authenticity of the narrative. Some Christian clergy and Bens [Dr. George Benson], a doctor of history, stated that by ‘young woman’ Isaiah ‘alaihis-salâm’ meant his own spouse and told the story accordingly. This explanation seems to be the most acceptable and the most plausible. 

6 — It is narrated in the second chapter of the Gospel of Matthew that Yûsuf-u-Nejjâr (Joseph the Carpenter), for fear of Hirodes (Herod), took Maryam and Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ and went to Egypt. And the fifteenth verse of the second chapter reads as follows: 

“And was there until the death of Herod: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying, Out of Egypt have I called my son.” (Matt: 2:15) 

The Prophet meant here is Yûshâ’ (Hosea). Thus the author of the Gospel of Matthew refers to the first verse of the eleventh chapter of the Book of Yûshâ (Hosea) in the Old Testament. 

This is wrong, because this verse has nothing to do with Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’. The correct form of the verse exists in the Arabic translation printed in 1226 [A.D. 1811], and reads as follows: 

“I loved Israel since his childhood and invited his children from Egypt.” This verse is a sign of the favour Allâhu ta’âlâ conferred upon the Israelites in the time of Mûsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’. The author of Matthew changed

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this verse in the Old Testament by replacing the plural form ‘children’ with the singular ‘son’ (ibn) and using the first person singular pronoun (my) instead of the third person (his). Following his example, the author of the Arabic version published in 1260 [A.D. 1844] made [intentional] changes, [thus changing the meaning altogether]. However, when the verses following it are read, the reason for this change becomes clear. As a matter of fact the next verse, the second verse of the eleventh chapter of the Book of Hosea, purports: 

“As they called them, so they went from them: they sacrificed unto Ba’al-im[1], …” (Hos: 11:2). 

This cannot be the case with hadrat Îsâ, nor with the Jews contemporary with Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ or even with the Jews that lived five hundred years before the birth of Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’. For it is written clearly in history that five hundred and thirty-six years before the birth of Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’, that is, after their salvation from slavery in Babel, Jews desisted from worshipping idols and turned away from idols in penitence. It is a recorded fact that after that time they kept off idols. 

7 — It is written in the nineteenth and following verses of the second chapter of the Gospel of Matthew, 

“But when Herod was dead, behold, an angel of the Lord appeareth in a dream to Joseph in Egypt,” 

“Saying, Arise, and take the young child and his mother, and go into the land of Israel: …” 

“And he arose, and took the young child and his mother, and came into the land of Israel.” “… he turned aside into the parts of Galilee:” 

“And he came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets, He shall be called a Nazarene.” (Mat: 2:19 thr. 23) 

This is wrong, too. None of the books of Prophets contains a word of this sort. Jews reject this word and say that it is a lie, a slander. [In fact, Jews hold the belief that no Prophet lived in the region of Galilee, let alone Nazareth. 

As it is narrated clearly in the fifty-second verse of the seventh chapter of John, 

“They answered and said unto him, Art thou also of Galilee? Search, and look: for out of Galilee ariseth no prophet.” (John: 7:52) 
This verse of John’s contradicts the verse of Matthew we have mentioned above.] If the Christian priests have other information in this respect, they ought to declare it. 

8 — As is written at the beginning of the fourth chapter of Matthew; the devil wanted to test Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’. He was 

[1] Idols worshipped by the peoople of the time of Ilyâ (Elijah) ‘alaihissalâm’.
 

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taken to the desert by the Spirit. Fasting for forty days and nights, he became hungry. Then the devil took Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ to the blessed city and made him mount the dome of the temple, and said, 

“If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down: … He shall give his angels charge concerning thee: and in their hands they shall bear thee up, …” (Matt: 4-6)

Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ answered the devil: 

“Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God.” (ibid: 4-7) 

Then he took him into the mountains and said:

 “All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me.” (ibid: 4-9)

Îsâ ‘alaihissalâm’ said to the devil: 

“Get thee hence, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and Him only shalt thou serve.” (ibid: 4-10) 

It is written in the twelfth and later verses of the first chapter of Mark: 

“And immediately the spirit driveth him into the wilderness.” 

“And he was there in the wilderness for forty days, tempted of Satan: he was with the wild beasts; and the angels ministered unto him.” (Mark: 1-12, 13) 

No remark is made here as to the manner of the devil’s testing or the forty days’ fasting by Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’. 

9 — The sixth and seventh verses of the twenty-sixth chapter of Matthew purports: 

“Now when Jesus was in Bethany, in the house of Simon the leper,”

“There came unto him a woman having an alabaster box of very precious ointment, and poured it on his head, as he sat at meat.” (Matt: 26-6, 7) 

The third verse of the fourteenth chapter of Mark reads: 

“And being in Bethany in the house of Simon the leper, as he sat at meat, there came a woman having an alabaster box of ointment of spikenard very precious; and she brake the box, and poured it on his head.” (Mark: 14-3) 

As it is purported in the thirty-sixth and later verses of the seventh chapter of the Gospel of Luke, 

“And one of the Pharisees desired him that he would eat with him. And he went into the Pharisee’s house and sat down to meat.” 

“And, behold, a woman in the city, which was a sinner, when she knew that Jesus sat at meat in the Pharisee’s house, brought an alabaster box of ointment,” 

“And stood at his feet behind him weeping, and began to wash his feet with tears, and did wipe them with the hairs of her head, and kissed his feet, and anointed them with the ointment.” (Luke: 7-36, 37, 38) 

“And he said unto her, Thy sins are forgiven.” (ibid: 7-48) 
On the other hand, the same episode is narrated as follows in the twelfth chapter of the Gospel of John: 
“Then Jesus six days
  

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before the passover came to Bethany, where Lazarus was which had been dead, whom he raised from the dead.” 

“There they made him a supper; and Martha served: …” 

“Then took Mary a pound of ointment of spikenard, very costly, and anointed the feet of Jesus, and wiped his feet with her hair: …” (John: 12-1, 2, 3) 

[As it is seen, the same one episode is narrated differently in the four Gospels.] 

10 — It is written in the nineteenth, twentieth and twenty-first verses of the first chapter of John: 

“… when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, Who art thou?” 

“And he confessed, and denied not; but confessed, I am not the Christ.” 

“And they asked him, What then? Art thou E-li’as? And he saith, I am not. Art thou that prophet? And he answered, No.” (John: 119, 20, 21)

On the other hand, according to the fourteenth verse of the eleventh chapter of the Gospel of Matthew, Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ stated about Yahyâ (E’li’as) in front of the people: 

“And if ye will receive it, this is E-li’as, which was for to come.” (Matt: 11-14) 

And again Matthew writes in the tenth, eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth verses of the seventeenth chapter: 
“And his disciples asked him, saying, Why then say the scribes that E-li’as must first come?” 

“And Jesus answered and said unto them, E-li’as truly shall first come, and restore all things.” 

“But I say unto you, That E-li’as is come already, and they knew him not, but have done unto him whatsoever they listed. Likewise shall also the Son of man suffer of them.” 

“Then the disciples understood that he spake unto them of John the Baptist.” (Matt: 17-10, 11, 12, 13) 

As is understood from this final passage, Yahyâ (John the Baptist) is the promised, expected E-li’as. According to the Gospels of John and Matthew, the statements of Yahyâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ contradict those of Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’. [For in the Gospel of John, Yahyâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ declares that he is not E-li’as. One of the reasons why Jews did not accept Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ was because they had been expecting the coming of E-li’as before him. The contradiction here is as obvious as the sun.] 

11 — In the first chapter of the Gospel of Luke, the angel who gives the good news of hadrat Yahyâ to Zakariyya (Zachariah), or Zach-a-ri’as) ‘alaihis-salâm’ recounts the qualities of Yahyâ, and says in the seventeenth verse: 

“And he shall go before him in the spirit and power of E-li’as, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; …” (Luke: 1-17) 

This verse runs counter to the verses of Matthew narrated
  

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above, For it would be paradoxical for Yahyâ both to be E-li’as himself and to have virtues and merits common with E-li’as. 

12 — The twenty-fourth, twenty-fifth and twenty-sixth verses of the fourth chapter of Luke state: 

“And he said, Verily I say unto you, …” 

“… many widows were in Israel in the days of E-li’as, when the heaven was shut up three years and six months, when famine was throughout all the land;” 

“But none of them was E-li’as sent, save unto Sa-rep’ta, a city of Si’don, unto a woman that was a widow.” (Luke: 4-24, 25, 26) 

Since this event did not take place in the time of Yahyâ ‘alaihis-salâm’, this narrative is obviously contrary to the narrative of Matthew. [For it is stated in the Gospel of Matthew that Yahyâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ lived in the time of Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ and that he was E-li’as. On the other hand, contrary to the narrative in the Gospel of Luke, the event of the sky remaining closed three years and six months did not take place in the time of Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ or Yahyâ (John the Baptist), who is represented as E-li’as.] 

13 — The fifty-third and fifty-fourth verses of the ninth chapter of Luke purport: 

“And they did not receive him, because his face was as though he would go to Jerusalem.” 

“And when his disciples James and John saw this, they said, Lord, wilt thou that we command fire to come down from heaven, and consume them, even as E-li’as did?” (Luke: 9-53, 54) 

Hence, even the apostles of Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ knew that E-li’as had lived before them and that Yahyâ was not E-li’as. This narrative contradicts the narrative of Matthew, too. 

14 — It is written in the first, second and third verses of the twenty-first chapter of the Gospel of Matthew that Îsâ ‘alaihissalâm’ sent forth two apostles of his to a nearby village and ordered them to bring back with them a donkey tied there and its foal. The other Gospels do not mention the donkey and refer only to the foal. 

15 — The sixth verse of the first chapter of Mark writes that Yahyâ ate locusts and wild honey. The eighteenth verse of the eleventh chapter of Matthew, on the other hand, says that Yahyâ did not eat or drink anything. [Their statements are quite opposite to each other.] 

16 — The thirteenth to seventeenth verses of the third chapter of Matthew narrate that 

“Then cometh Jesus from Galilee to Jordan unto John, to be baptized of him.” 

“But John forbad him, saying, I have need to be baptized of thee, and cometh thou to me?” 

“And Jesus answering said unto him, Suffer it to be so now:

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for thus it becometh us to fulfill all righteousness. Then he suffered him.” 

“And Jesus, when he was baptized, went up straightway out of the water: and, lo, the heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove, and lighting upon him:” 

“And lo a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.” (Matt: 3-13, 14, 15, 16, 17) 

Again, the second and third verses of the eleventh chapter of Matthew state that 

“Now when John had heard in the prison the works of Christ, he sent two of his disciples,” 

“And said unto him, Art thou he that should come, or do we look for another?” (Matt: 11-2, 3) 

Yahyâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ remained imprisoned in the dungeon until he was killed there. Baptism of Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ by Yahyâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ was before his imprisonment. According to Matthew, Yahyâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ knew of Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ before the baptism. 

[In the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth verses of the third chapter, as we have quoted above, Yahyâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ asks Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ to baptize him and says, 

“I need to be baptized by you.” 

and yet in the eleventh chapter it is narrated that when Yahyâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ was in the dungeon he did not know Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ was the Messiah and that “he sent his disciples to find out who he was.” But the actual fact is that Yahyâ ‘alaihissalâm’ remained in the dungeon and was martyred there by Herod. This fact is stated also by Matthew in the fourteenth chapter. Accordingly, the verses on this subject in the third chapter and those in the eleventh chapter belie each other.] 

17 — On the other hand this episode is narrated in an altogether different way in the Gospel of John. The thirty-second and thirty-third verses of the first chapter state that 

“And John bare record, saying, I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it abode upon him.” 

“And I knew him not: but he that sent me to baptize with water, the same said unto me, Upon whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending, and remaining on him, the same is he which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost.” (John: 1-32, 33) 

According to this narrative, Yahyâ did not know Îsâ ‘alaihissalâm’ before. He learned of him when the Spirit descended on him. This narrative is contrary to the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth verses of the first chapter of Matthew, which we have cited above. 

18 — In the thirty-first verse of the fifth chapter of the Gospel of John, Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ says:

 “If I bear witness of myself, my witness is not true.” (John: 5-31) 

Isâ ‘alaihis-salâm’, again, says in
  

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the eleventh verse of the third chapter: 

“… We speak that we do know, and testify that we have seen; …” (John: 3-11) 

These two statements are absolutely irreconcilable. 

19 — In the twenty-seventh verse of the tenth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew he says: 

“What I tell you in darkness, that speak ye in light: and what ye hear in the ear, that preach ye upon the housetops.” (Matt: 10-27) 
And in the third verse of the twelfth chapter of Luke he says:

“Therefore whatsoever ye have spoken in darkness shall be heard in the light; and that which ye have spoken in the ear in closets shall be proclaimed upon the housetops.” (Luke: 12-3) 

As is seen, the statement was derived from the same one source but was changed afterwards. 

20 — It is stated in the twenty-first and later verses of the twenty-sixth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew that 

“And as they did eat, he said, Verily I say unto you, that one of you shall betray me.” 

“And they were exceeding sorrowful, and began every one of them to say unto him, Lord, is it I?” 

“And he answered and said, He that dippeth his hand with me in the dish, the same shall betray me.” (Matt: 26-21, 22, 23) 

“Then Judas, which betrayed him, answered and said, Master is it I? He said unto him, Thou hast said.” (ibid: 26-25) 

The twenty-first and later verses of the thirteenth chapter of the Gospel of John say: 

“When Jesus had thus said, he was troubled in spirit, and testified, and said, Verily, verily, I say unto you, that one of you shall betray me.”

“Then the disciples looked one on another, doubting of whom he spake.” 

“Now there was leaning on Jesus’ bosom one of his disciples, whom Jesus loved.” 

“Simon Peter therefore beckoned to him, that he should ask who it should be of whom he spake.” 

“He then lying on Jesus’ breast saith unto him, Lord, who is it?” 

“Jesus answered, He it is, to whom I shall give a sop, when I have dipped it. And when he had dipped the sop, he gave it to Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon.” (John: 13-21 thr. 26) 

The difference between the two narratives is apparent. 

21 — The twenty-sixth chapter of Matthew, while narrating how the Jews caught and imprisoned hadrat Îsâ, writes as follows beginning in the forty-eighth verse: 

“Now he that betrayed him gave him a sign, saying, Whomsoever I shall kiss, that same is he: hold him fast.” 

“And forthwith he came to Jesus, and said, Hail, master; and kissed him.” 

“And Jesus said unto him, Friend, wherefore art thou come? Then came they, and laid hands on Jesus, and took him.” (Matt: 26-48, 49, 50)
  

                                                          – 76 

The third and later verses of the eighteenth chapter of John narrate that 

“Judas then, having received a band of men and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and torches and weapons.” 

“Jesus therefore, knowing all things that should come upon him, went forth, and said unto them, Whom seek ye?” 

“They answered him, Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus saith unto them, I am he. And Judas also, which betrayed him, stood with them.” 

“As soon then as he had said unto them, I am he, they went backward, and fell to the ground.”  

“Then asked he them again, Whom seek ye? And they said, Jesus of Nazareth.” 

“Jesus answered, I have told you that I am he: if therefore ye seek me, let these go their way:” (John: 18-3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8) 

Contradiction between the two narratives is manifest. 

22 — There are many opposite narratives as to Peter’s denial of knowing Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ in the Gospels. 

The sixty-ninth and later verses of the twenty-sixth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew state that 

“Now Peter sat without in the palace: and a damsel came unto him, saying, Thou also was with Jesus of Galilee.” 

“But he denied before them all, saying, I know not what thou sayest.”

“And when he was gone out into the porch, another maid saw him, and said unto them that were there, This fellow was also with Jesus of Nazareth.” 

“And again he denied with an oath, I do not know the man.” 

“And after a while came unto him they that stood by, and said to Peter, Surely thou art one of them; for thy speech betrayeth thee.” 

“Then began he to curse and to swear, saying, I know not the man. And immediately the cock crew.” 

“And Peter remembered the word of Jesus, which said unto him, Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice. And he went out, and wept bitterly.” (Matt: 26-69 thr. 75) 

On the other hand, it is narrated as follows between the sixtysixth and seventy-second verses of the fourteenth chapter of the Gospel of Mark: 

“And as Peter was beneath in the palace, there cometh one of the maids of the high priest:” 

“And when she saw Peter warming himself, she looked upon him, and said, And thou also wast with Jesus of Nazareth.” 

“But he denied, saying, I know not, neither understand I what thou sayest. And he went out into the porch; and the cock crew.” 

“And a maid saw him again, and began to say to them that stood by, This is one of them.” 

“And he denied it again. And a little after, they that stood by said again to Peter, Surely thou art one of them: for thou art a Galilæan, and thy speech agreeth thereto.” 

“But he began to curse and to swear, saying, I know not this man whom ye speak.” 

“And the second
                                                            – 77 

time the cock crew. And Peter called to mind the word that Jesus said unto him, Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice. And when he thought thereon, he wept.” (Mark: 14-66 thr. 72) 

The fifty-fifth and later verses of the twenty-second chapter of the Gospel of Luke narrate that 

“And when they had kindled a fire in the midst of the hall, and were set down together, Peter sat down among them.” 

“But a certain maid beheld him as he sat by the fire, and earnestly looked upon him, and said, This man was also with him.” 

“And he denied him, saying, Woman, I know him not.” 

“And after a while another saw him, and said, Thou art also of them, And Peter said, Man, I am not.” 

“And about the space of one hour after another confidently affirmed, saying, Of a truth this fellow also was with him: for he is a Galilæan.” 
“And Peter said, Man, I know not what thou sayest. And immediately, while he yet spake, the cock crew.” 

“And the Lord turned, and looked upon Peter. And Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how he had said unto him, Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice.” 

“And Peter went out, and wept bitterly.” (Luke: 22-55 thr. 62) 
The twenty-fifth and later verses of the eighteenth chapter of the Gospel of John write that 

“And Simon Peter stood and warmed himself. They said therefore unto him, Art not thou also one of his disciples? He denied it, and said, I am not.” 

“One of the servants of the high priest, being his kinsman whose ear Peter cut off, saith, Did not I see thee in the garden with him?” 

“Peter then denied again: and immediately the cock crew.” (John: 18-25, 26, 27) 

These kinds of contradictions in these four narratives are palpable to men of reason. 

23 — In the thirty-sixth verse of the twenty-second chapter of the Gospel of Luke, hadrat Îsâ, on the day he would be caught, says to the Apostles: 

“… But now, he that hath a purse, let him take it, and likewise his scrip: and he that hath no sword, let him sell his garment, and buy one.” (Luke: 22-36) 

In the thirty-eighth verse the Apostles say to hadrat Îsâ: 

“… Lord, behold, here are two swords. …” (ibid: 22-38) 

And hadrat Îsâ says to them:

“… It is enough.” (ibid) 

In the forty-ninth, fiftieth, fifty-first and fiftysecond verses: 

“When they which were about him saw what would follow, they said unto him, Lord, shall we smite with the sword?” 

“And one of them smote the servant of the high priest, and cut off his right ear.” 

“And Jesus answered and said, Suffer ye that far. And touched his ear, and healed him.” (ibid: 22-49, 50, 51)
 

                                                            – 78 

Nevertheless, the other three Gospels do not contain the events of buying swords and curing the excised ear. 

24 — It is narrated as follows in the fifty-first and later verses of the twenty-sixth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew: 

“And, behold, one of them which were with Jesus stretched out his hand, and drew his sword, and struck a servant of the high priest’s, and smote off his ear.” 

“Then said Jesus unto him, Put up again thy sword into his place: for all they that take the sword shall perish with the sword.” 

“Thinkest thou that I cannot now pray to my Father, and he shall presently give me more than twelve regions of angels?” 

“But how then shall the scriptures be fulfilled, that thus it must be?” (Matt: 26-51, 52, 53, 54) 

The other Gospels, on the other hand, do not contain anything concerning these spiritual soldiers, angels. 

25 — In the Gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke, as Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ was being taken away for crucifixion, they had a person named Simon of Cy-re’ne carry the cross, [Matt: 27-32; Mark: 15-21; Luke: 23-26]. 
But John says, in the seventeenth verse of the nineteenth chapter, that Jesus carried the cross himself.

26 — According to the writings of Matthew and Mark, two of the malefactors who were to be hanged with Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ kept railing on him. 

In the Gospel of Luke, though, 

“One of them railed, but the other rebuked the former and asked Jesus to remember him in his kingdom.” [Luke: 23-39, 40, 41, 42, 43.] 

27 — The writings about the resurrection of Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ are contradictory in the four Gospels. Lest the reader should weary of a detailed account, we shall give a summary of the contradictory verses in each of the Gospels for advisory purposes: 

In the fifty-seventh and later verses of the twenty-seventh chapter of the Gospel of Matthew: 

“When the eve was come, there was a rich man of Ar-i-ma-thæa, named Joseph, who also himself was Jesus’ disciple:” 

“He went to Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus. Then Pilate commanded the body to be delivered.” 

“And when Joseph had taken the body, he wrapped it in a clean linen cloth.” 

“And laid it in his own new tomb, which had been hewn out in the rock: and he rolled a great stone to the door of the sepulchre, and departed.” 

“And there was Mary Magdalene, and the other Mary, sitting over against the sepulchre.” 

“Now the next day,[1] that followed the day of the preparation, the chief 

[1] Saturday. The day of preparation means the day before the sabbath.
 

                                                           – 79 

priests and Pharisees came together unto Pilate,” 

“Saying, Sir, we remember that that deceiver said, while he was yet alive, After three days I will rise again.” 

“Command therefore that the sepulchre be made sure until the third day, lest his disciples come by night, and steal him away, and say unto the people, He is risen from the dead: so the last error shall be worse than the first.” 

“Pilate said unto them, Ye have a watch: go your way, make it as sure as you can.” 

“So they went, and made the sepulchre sure, sealing the stone, and setting a watch.” (Matt: 27-57 to 66) 

“In the end of the sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulchre.” 

“And, behold, there was a great earthquake: for the angel of the Lord descended from heaven, and came and rolled back the stone from the door, and sat upon it.” 

“His countenance was like lightning, and his raiment white as snow:”

“And for fear of him the keepers did shake, and became as dead men.”

“And the angel answered and said unto the women. Fear not ye: for I know that ye seek Jesus, which was crucified.” 

“He is not here: for he is risen, as he said. Come, see the place where the Lord lay.” 

“And go quickly, and tell his disciples that he is risen from the dead; and behold, he goeth before you into Galilee; there shall ye see him: lo, I have told you.” 

“And they departed quickly from the sepulchre with fear and great joy; and did run to bring his disciples word.” 

“And as they went to tell his disciples, behold, Jesus met them, saying, All hail. And they came and held him by the feet, and worshipped him.” 

“Then said Jesus unto them, Be not afraid: go tell my brethren that they go into Galilee, and there shall they see me.” 

“Now when they were going, behold, some of the watch came into the city, and shewed unto the chief priests all the things that were done.”

“And when they were assembled with the elders, and had taken counsel, they gave large money unto the soldiers,” 

“Saying, Say ye, His disciples came by night, and stole him away while we slept.” 

“And if this come to the governor’s ears, we will persuade him, and secure you.” 

“So they took the money, and did as they were taught: and this saying is commonly reported among the Jews until this day.” 

“Then the eleven disciples went away into Galilee, into a mountain where Jesus had appointed them.” 

“And when they saw him, they worshipped him: but some doubted.” 

“And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.” 

“Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:” 
“Teaching

                                                             – 80 

them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: …” (Matt: 28-1 to 20) 

On the other hand, it is narrated as follows in the forty-second and later verses of the fifteenth chapter and in the sixteenth chapter of the Gospel of Mark: 

“And now when the even was come, because it was the preparation,[1] that is, the day before the sabbath,” 

“Joseph of Ar-i-ma-thæa, an honourable councellor, which also waited for the kingdom of God, came, and went in boldly into Pilate, and craved the body of Jesus.” (Mark: 15-42, 43) 

“… he[2] gave the body to Joseph.” 

“And he bought fine linen, and took him down, and wrapped him in the linen, and laid him in a sepulchre which was hewn out of a rock, and rolled a stone unto the door of the sepulchre.” 

“And Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joses beheld where he was laid.” (ibid: 15-45, 46, 47) 

“And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Sa-lo’ me, had bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him.” 

“And very early in the morning the first day of the week, they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun.” 

“And they said among themselves, Who shall roll us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre?” 

“And when they looked, they saw that the stone was rolled away: for it was very great.” 

“And entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment; and they were affrighted.”

“And he saith unto them, Be not affrighted: Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, which was crucified: he is risen; he is not here: behold the place where they laid him.” 

“But go your way, tell his disciples and Peter that he goeth before you into Galilee: there shall ye see him, as he said unto you.” 

“And they went out quickly, and fled from the sepulchre; for they trembled and were amazed: neither said they any thing to any man; for they were afraid.” 

“Now when Jesus was risen early the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven devils.” 
“And she went and told those that had been with him, as they mourned and wept.” 

“And they, when they had heard that he was alive, and had been seen of her, believed not.” 

“After he appeared in another form unto two of them, as they walked, and went into the country.” 

“And they went and told it unto the residue: neither believed they them.” 

“Afterward he appeared unto the eleven as they sat at meat, and 

[1] Friday, the so-called day of crucifixion. 

[2] Pilate
 

                                                           – 81 

upbraided them with their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they believed not them which had seen him after he was risen.” 

“And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature.” 

“He who believes and is baptized shall be saved; …” (ibid: 16-1 to 16) 

“So then after the Lord had spoken unto them, he was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of God.” (ibid: 16-19) 

In the fiftieth and later verses of the twenty-third chapter and in the twenty-fourth chapter of the Gospel of Luke: 

“And, behold, there was a man named Joseph, a counsellor; and he was a good man, and a just:” 

“(The same had not consented to the counsel and deed of them;) he was of Ar-i-ma-thæa, a city of the Jews: who also himself waited for the kingdom of God.” 

“This man went unto Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus.” 

“And he took it down, and wrapped it in linen, and laid it in a sepulchre that was hewn in stone, wherein never man before was laid.”

“And that day was the preparation, and the sabbath drew on.” 

“And the women also, which came with him from Galilee, followed after, and beheld the sepulchre, and how his body was laid.” 

“And they returned, and prepared spices and ointments; and rested the sabbath day according to the commandment.” (Luke: 23-50 to 56) 

“Now upon the first day of the week, very early in the morning, they came unto the sepulchre, bringing the spices which they had prepared, and certain others with them.” 

“And they found the stone rolled away from the sepulchre.” 

“And they entered in, and found not the body of the Lord Jesus.” 

“And it came to pass, as they were much perplexed thereabout, behold, two men stood by them in shining garments:” 

“And as they were afraid, and bowed down their faces to the earth, they said unto them, Why seek ye the living among the dead?” 

“He is not here, but is risen: remember how he spake unto you when he was yet in Galilee,” (ibid: 24-1 to 6) 

“And returned from the sepulchre, and told all these things unto the eleven, and to all the rest.” 

“It was Mary Magdalene, and Jo-an’na, and Mary the mother of James, and other women that were with them, which told these things unto the apostles.” 

“And their words seemed to them as idle tales, and they believed them not.” 

“Then arose Peter, and ran unto the sepulchre; and stooping down, he beheld the linen clothes laid by themselves, and departed, wondering in himself at that which was come to pass.” 

“And, behold, two of them went that same day to a village called Em-ma’us, which was from Jerusalem about threescore furlongs.” 

“And they talked
 

                                                      – 82 

together of all these things which had happened.” 

“And it came to pass, that, while they communed together and reasoned, Jesus himself drew near, and went with them.” 

“But their eyes were holden that they should not know him.” 

“And he said unto them, What manner of communications are these that ye have one to another, as ye walk, and are sad?” 

“And the one of them, whose name was Cle’o-pas, answering said unto him, Art thou only a stranger in Jerusalem, and hast not known the things which are come to pass there in these days?” 

“And he said unto them, What things? And they said unto him, Concerning Jesus of Nazareth, which was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people:” 
“And how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him to be condemned to death, and have crucified him.” 

“But we trusted that it had been he which should have redeemed Israel: and beside all this, to day is the third day since these things were done.” 

“Yea, and certain women also of our company made us astonished, which were early at the sepulchre;” 

“And when they found not his body, they came, saying, that they had also seen a vision of angels, which said that he was alive.” 

“And certain of us which were with us went to the sepulchre, and found it even so as the women had said: but him they saw not.” 

“Then he said unto them, O fools, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken: Ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and to enter his glory?” 

“And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the scriptures the things concerning himself.” 

“And they drew nigh unto the village, whither they went: and he made as though he would have gone further.” 

“But they constrained him, saying, Abide with us: for it is toward evening, and the day is far spent. And he went in to tarry with them.”

“And it came to pass, as he sat at meat with them, he took bread, and blessed it, and brake, and gave to them.” 

“And their eyes were opened, and they knew him; and he vanished out of their sight.” 

“And they said to one another, Did not our heart burn within us, while he talked with us by the way, and while he opened to us the scriptures?” 

“And they rose up the same hour and returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and them that were with them,”

“Saying, The Lord is risen indeed, and hath appeared to Simon.” 

“And they told what things were done in the way, and how he was known of them in breaking of bread.” 

“And as they thus spake, Jesus himself stood in the midst of them, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you.” 

“But they were terrified and affrighted, and supposed
 

                                                           – 83 

that they had seen a spirit.” 

“And he said unto them, Why are ye troubled? and why do thoughts arise in your hearts?” 

“Behold my hands and my feet, that it is myself: handle me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have.” 

“And when he had thus spoken, he shewed them his hands and his feet.” 

“And while they yet believed not for joy, and wondered, he said unto them, Have ye here any meat?” 

“And they gave him a piece of a broiled fish, and of an honeycomb.” 

“And he took it and did eat before them.” (Luke: 24-9 to 43) 

[The intervening verses omitted here recount the admonitions and advice which Jesus gives them.] 

“And he led them out as far as to Bethany, and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them.” 

“And it came to pass, while he blessed them, he was parted from them, and carried up into heaven.” (ibid: 24-50, 51) 
On the other hand, in the thirty-first and later verses of the nineteenth chapter and also in the later chapters of the Gospel of John:

“The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath day was an high day,) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that it might be taken away.” 

“Then came the soldiers, and brake the legs of the first, and of the other which was crucified with him.” 

“But when they came to Jesus, and saw that he was dead already, they brake not his legs:” 

“But one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and forthwith came there out blood and water.” (John: 19-31, 32, 33, 34) 

“And after this Joseph of Ar-i-ma-thæ’a, being a disciple of Jesus, but secretly for fear of the Jews, besought Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus: and Pilate gave him leave. He came therefore, and took the body of Jesus.” 

“And there came also Nico-de’mus, which at the first came to Jesus by night, and brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about an hundred pound weight.” 

“Then took they the body of Jesus, and wound it in linen clothes with the spices, as the manner of the Jews to bury.” 

“Now in the place where he was crucified, there was a garden; and in the garden a new sepulchre, wherein was never man yet laid.” 
“There laid they Jesus therefore because of the Jews’ preparation day;[1] for the sepulchre was nigh at hand.” (ibid: 19-38 to 42) 

“The first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre.” 

“Then she runneth, and cometh to Simon Peter, and 

[1] Friday.
 

                                                  – 84 

to the other disciple, whom Jesus loved, and saith unto them, They have taken away the Lord out of the sepulchre, and we know not where they have laid him.” 

“Peter therefore went forth, and that other disciple did outrun Peter, and came first to the sepulchre, and we know not where they have laid him.” 

“Peter therefore went forth, and that other disciple, and came to the sepulchre.” 

“And he stooping down, and looking in, saw the linen clothes lying: yet went he not in.” 

“Then cometh Simon Peter following him, and went into the sepulchre, and seeth the linen clothes lie,” 

“And the napkin, that was about his head, not lying with the linen clothes, but wrapped together in a place by itself.” 

“Then went in also that other disciple, which came first to the sepulchre, and he saw, and believed.” 

“For as yet they knew not the scripture, that he must rise again from the dead.” 

“Then the disciples went away again unto their own home.” 

“But Mary stood without at the sepulchre weeping: and as she wept, she stooped down, and looked into the sepulchre,” 

“And seeth two angels in white sitting, the one at the head, and the other at the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain.” 

“And they say unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? She saith unto them, Because they have taken away my Lord, and I know not where they have laid him.” 

“And when she had thus said, she turned herself back, and saw Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus.” 

“Jesus saith unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? Whom seekest thou? She, supposing him to be the gardener, saith unto him, Sir, if thou have borne him hence, tell me where thou hast laid him, and I will take him away.” 

“Jesus saith unto her, Mary. She turned herself, and saith unto him, Rab-bo’ni, which is to say, Master.” 

“Jesus saith unto her, Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father; but go to my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father, and your Father; and to my God, and your God.” 

“Mary Magdalene came and told the disciples that she had seen the Lord, and that he had spoken these things unto her.” 
“Then the same day at evening, being the first day of the week, when the doors were shut where the disciples were assembled for fear of the Jews, came Jesus and stood in the midst, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you.” 

“… he showed unto them his hands and his side. Then were the disciples glad, when they saw the Lord.” 

“Then said Jesus to them again, Peace be unto you: as my Father hath sent me, so send I you.” 

“And when he had said this, he breathed on them, and saith unto them, Receive ye the Holy Ghost:” 

“Whose soever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them; and whose soever sins
 

                                                          – 85 

ye retain, they are retained.” 

“But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Did’y-mus, was not with them when Jesus came.” 

“The other disciples therefore said unto him, We have seen the Lord. But he said unto them, Except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and thrust my hand into his side, I will not believe.” 

“And after eight days again his disciples were within, and Thomas with them: then came Jesus, the doors being shut, and stood in the midst, and said, Peace be unto you.” 

“Then saith he to Thomas, Reach hither thy finger, and behold my hands; and reach hither thy hand, and thrust it into my side: and be not faithless, but believing.” (John: 20-1 to 29) 

(The first, second, and third verses of the twenty-first chapter narrate how some of the disciples went out fishing on a boat in the Taberiyeh (Ti-be’ri-as, or Tiberias, the sea of Galilee) and how they did not catch any fish that night. Then the fourth verse goes on as follows:) 

“But when the morning was now come, Jesus stood on the shore: but the disciples knew not that it was Jesus.” 

“Then Jesus saith unto them, Children, have ye any meat? They answered him, No.” 

“And he saith unto them, Cast the net on the right side of the ship, and ye shall find. They cast therefore, and now they were not able to draw it for the multitude of fishes.” 

“Therefore that disciple whom Jesus loved saith unto Peter, It is the Lord. Now when Simon Peter heard that it was the Lord, he girt his fisher’s coat unto him, (for he was naked,) and did cast himself into the sea.” 

“And the other disciples came in a little ship; … dragging the net with fishes.” 

“As soon then as they were come to land, they saw a fire of coals there, and fish laid thereon, and bread.” 

“Jesus saith unto them, Bring of the fish which ye have now caught.”

“Simon Peter went up, and drew the net to land full of great fishes, and hundred and fifty and three: and for all there were so many, yet was not the net broken.” (John: 21-4 to 11) 

These are four different narratives. They differ from one another very much. These four Gospels, which form the basis for the Christian creed, are full of such contradictory narratives. A little attention will suffice to see how one narrative is the opposite of another.

Furthermore, more often than not, a matter narrated by one of them does not exist in the others. The contradictions and differences in the Gospels are not only on the resurrection of Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ but also on all the other matters alike. There are very few events narrated in all of them. 

For instance, 

such events as the manner of the birth of Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’; Herod’s

 

                                                       – 86 

having the children killed; 

the arrival of priests from the east; 

Îsâ’s ‘alaihis-salâm’ going to Egypt in his childhood; 

the Nazarenes’ refusing Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’; 

his curing a (military) captain’s ailing servant, 

resuscitating a judge’s dead daughter, 

enjoining on his Apostles to buy swords; 

his various admonitions and exemplifications; 

his invocation on the cross, “O my God; o my God! Why hast thou forsaken me? (=Eli, eli, lama sabaktanî)”; 

his carrying his own cross; 

guards’ waiting on his tomb; 

his resurrecting from among the dead and showing himself to his Apostles in various guises; 

and many others, exist only in one or two of them, while the others do not contain them. 

The fourth Gospel, John’s Gospel, is altogether different from the other three Gospels in manner and style. 

Îsâ’s ‘alaihis-salâm’ insulting his mother and turning the water into wine, narrated in the second chapter; 

his talking with a woman by a well, in the fourth chapter; 

his curing a patient who had been bedridden for thirty-eight years near the pool of Bethlehem, in the fifth chapter; 

the dispute he had with the Jews on the Messiah’s own flesh and blood, 

in the sixth chapter [the fifty-second and later verses]; 

his trial of an adulteress and the conversations he had with the Jews on the origin and genealogy of the Messiah, in the eighth chapter; 

his curing a blind man’s eyes with the mud he made with his spittle and put on his eyes and sending him for a bath in the pool of Siloamand the Pharisees’ various attempts and their disputes with Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’, in the ninth chapter; 

the Jews’ beginning to stone Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ and the conversations
he had with them concerning his divinity, in the tenth chapter; 

his resuscitating Luazer (Lazarus), in the eleventh chapter; 

the anointing of Îsâ’s ‘alaihis-salâm’ feet, in the twelfth chapter; 

his talking with Philip and Judah, in the fourteenth chapter; 

the curious supplication of Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’, in the seventeenth chapter; 

the following events narrated in the nineteenth chapter: 

the epitaph hung upon his chest when he was crucified was written in Hebrew, Latin and Greek and as Mary, his mother, and Mary, his mother’s sister (his maternal aunt) and the wife of Aeklaviya (Cle’o-phas), and Mary Magdalene stood by his cross, Jesus saw his mother with his most beloved disciple and said to his mother: 

“… Woman, behold thy son.” 

“Then saith he to the disciple, Behold thy mother, …”

in the twenty-sixth and twenty-seventh verses; a spear was thrust into his flank when he was on the cross; the cross was erected in a yard; Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ resurrected from his tomb and said to Mary Magdalene; 

“Do not touch me, I have not been to my father
 

                                                           – 87 

yet”; he showed himself to his Apostles at different places three times; and many other similar narratives do not exist in the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke. 

Quite a number of the matters existing in the Gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke do not exist in the Gospel of John. An example of this is  ’Ishâ-i-Rabbânî,  (the Eucharist), which is one of the sacraments of Christian religion. It exists in the three Gospels, but not in John.

[’Ishâ-i-Rabbânî refers to the last supper. It symbolizes a belief based on the following event: As is narrated in the twenty-sixth verse of the twenty-sixth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew, in the twenty-second and later verses of the fourteenth chapter of Mark, in the nineteenth verse of the twenty-second chapter of Luke, 

“And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and said, Take, eat, this is my body.” 

“And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it;” 

“For this is my blood of the new testament, …” (Matt: 26-26, 27, 28)[1] 

So it has been held as a belief that when priests in churches breathe a certain prayer on a piece of bread it will become Jesus’s flesh, when they break the loaf of bread to pieces Jesus will have been sacrificed, when they breathe a prayer on some wine in a container it will become Jesus’s blood, and those who eat the morsels of bread after dipping them in the wine will be united with God. This matter will be explained in the ninth chapter of our book.] 

As for the Gospel of Matthew; such events as Peter’s walking on water towards Jesus, a fish holding a coin in its mouth, the dream of Pilate’s wife, the resurrection of all saints with the resurrection of Jesus, the posting of guards before Jesus’s tomb exist only in the Gospel of Matthew, and not in the others. 

The four Gospels not only contradict one another in number of matters, but also each Gospel contains various inconsistent matters. 

This can be exemplified as follows: 

1 — In the Gospel of Matthew, when Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ sent forth the twelve Apostles on their first religious mission, he prohibited them from going to the cities of pagans and Samaritans and meeting them [Matthew: 10-5]. 

In his preaching on the mountain, he prohibited his disciples from giving sacred things to the dogs and throwing their Gospels to the swine [Matthew: 7-6].

 The same Gospel of Matthew commands something quite 

[1] There is an additional remark in Luke: “… this do in remembrance of me.” (Luke: 22-19)
 

                                                           – 88 

contrary to this commandment: In the eighth and twenty-first chapters, it is commanded that the pagans be called to Christianity instead of the Jews and the Jews are complained about for their infidelity. In the fourteenth and other verses of the twenty-fourth chapter, it is professed that the end of the world shall not come before the Bible has been communicated and taught to all tribes and peoples on earth. In the twenty-eighth and other chapters, the Apostles are ordered to admit others to Christianity through a single baptism and without any discrimination. 

2 — There is contradiction between the verses concerning the military captain who came to Jesus [the fifth and later verses of the eighth chapter] and the twenty-second and later verses of the fifteenth chapter, in which the story of a woman is narrated. For Jesus helps the pagan captain’s ailing servant in the eighth chapter. On the other hand, though the Canaanite woman dealt with in the fifteenth chapter is not a pagan, Jesus first refuses her openly, then helps her as an exceptional gift upon the woman’s earnest supplication. 

3 — It is written at the beginning of the seventh chapter of John that

“After these things Jesus walked in Galilee: for he would not walk in Jewry, because the Jews sought to kill him.” 

“Now the Jews’ feast of Tabernacles was at hand.” 

“His brethren therefore said unto him, Depart hence, and go into Judaea, that thy disciples also may see the works that thou doest.” 

“For there is no man that doeth any thing in secret, and he himself seeketh to be known openly. If thou do these things, shew thyself to the world.” 

“For neither did his brethren believe in him.” 

“Then Jesus said unto them, My time is not yet come: but your time is alway ready.” 

“The world cannot hate you; but me it hateth, because I testify of it, that the works thereof are evil.” 

“Go ye up yet unto this feast; for my time is not yet full come.” 

“When he had said these words unto them, he abode still in Galilee.” 

“But when his brethren were gone up, then went he also up unto the feast, not openly, but as it were in secret.” (John: 7-1 to 10) 

If it should be said that the Gospel of John was not altered, how can this imputation of mendacity which it makes on Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ be explained? [For it says that Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ first said he would not go to the place of the feast and then went there secretly, which would be mendacious. Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ could never have such a blemish.] 

4 — The Gospel of Matthew narrates Judas’s suicide as follows
 

                                                           – 89 

in the third and later verses of its twenty-seventh chapter: 

“Then Judas, which had betrayed him, when he saw that he was condemned, repented himself, and brought again the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and elders,” 

“Saying, I have sinned in that I have betrayed the innocent blood. And they said, What is that to us? see thou to that.” 

“And he cast down the pieces of silver in the temple, and departed, and went and hanged himself.” 

“And the chief priests took the silver pieces, and said, It is not lawful for to put them into the treasury, because it is the price of blood.” 

“And they took counsel, and bought with them the potter’s field, to bury strangers in.” 

“Wherefore that field was called, The field of blood, unto this day.” (Matt: 27-3 to 8) 

But Luke narrates from Peter in the eighteenth verse of the first chapter of his Book of Acts (of the Apostles), and says: 

“Now this man purchased a field with the reward of iniquity; and falling headlong, he burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out.” 

“And it was known unto all the dwellers at Jerusalem; inasmuch as that field is called in their proper tongue, A-cel’dama, that is to say, The field of blood.” 

These two narratives are contradictory in two respects: 

First;  according to Matthew’s narrative, Judas repented and returned the silvers he had taken, and the priests bought a field with it. And according to Luke’s narrative, he (Judas) bought the field himself.

Second;  according to Matthew’s narrative, Judas committed suicide by hanging himself. According to Luke’s narrative, he fell headlong and his abdomen split. 

5 — It is written in the second verse of the second chapter of the first epistle of John, 

“And he is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world.” (1 John: 2-2) 

This comes to mean that only Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ is impeccable and he is the redeemer of all the sinful people. 

On the other hand, the eighteenth verse of the twenty-first chapter of Proverbs purports: 

“The wicked shall be a ransom for the righteous, and the transgressor for the upright.” (Prov: 21-18) 

Accordingly, the sinner will be sacrificed for the innocent and the hypocrite will be sacrificed for the righteous. [This passage contradicts John’s writing.] 

6 — It is written in the eighteenth and nineteenth verses of the seventh chapter of the Hebrews: 

“For there is verily a disannulling of the commandment going before for the weakness
 

                                                         – 90 

and unprofitableness thereof.” 

“For the law made nothing perfect, …” (Heb: 7-18, 19) 

And in the seventh verse of the eighth chapter, 

“For if that first covenant had been faultless, then should no place have been sought for the second.” (Heb: 8-7) 

Nonetheless, Jesus says in the seventeenth verse of the fifth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew: 

“Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill.” (Mat: 5-17) 

7 — Jesus says unto Peter in the eighteenth and nineteenth verses of the sixteenth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew: 

“And I say unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.”

“And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.” (Matt: 16-18, 19) 

However, it is written in the same chapter, beginning in the twenty-first verse: 

“From that time forth began Jesus to shew unto his disciples, how that he must go unto Jerusalem, and suffer many things of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised again the third day.” 

“Then Peter took him, and began to rebuke him, saying, Be it far from thee, Lord: this shall not be unto thee.” 

“But he turned, and said unto Peter, Get thee behind me, Satan: thou art an offence unto me: for thou savourest not the things that be of God, but those that be of men.” (ibid: 16-21, 22, 23) 

Again, in the thirtyfourth verse of the twenty-sixth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew, it is reported that Jesus predicted about Peter that

“… before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice.” (ibid: 26-34), 
and in the thirty-fifth verse that Peter swore that he would not deny him. 

It is reported in the sixty-ninth through seventy-fifth verses of the twenty-sixth chapter of Matthew that Peter forgot this promise of his and denied three times, with swearings and curses, that he knew Jesus. 
Accordingly, in the sixteenth chapter of Matthew, Jesus praises Peter, adding that Allâhu ta’âlâ shall forgive whomever he forgives. In the twentieth chapter, however, he dismisses him and calls him ‘Satan’; and in the twenty-sixth chapter he predicts that he (Peter) will deny him. Christians believe that Jesus is God [May Allâhu ta’âlâ protect us from believing so.] 

Can the name God be reconciled with such an error? It is this very Peter that the Popes living in Rome today claim to represent, thus assuming to be the universal monarchs to whose disposal the earth has been bequeathed. And some people,
 

                                                        – 91 

believing in the Pope as such, have had the dream of entering Paradise.

8 — Again, when the episodes of ’Ishâ-i-Rabbânî (the Eucharist) [the last supper] narrated in the twenty-sixth verse of the twenty-sixth chapter of Matthew, in the nineteenth and twentieth verses of the twenty-second chapter of Luke and in the twenty-second and twenty-third verses of the fourteenth chapter of Mark are compared, it will be seen that one of them says that it was before night prayer, while another one says it was after night prayer, and that all the three Gospels state that there was wine on the table. It is stated in the sixth chapter of the Gospel of John that the so-called event took place and that there was only bread, no mention of wine being made.

Nevertheless, one of the dogmatic and practical principles of Christianity is eating the dinner of ’Ishâ-i-Rabbânî (the Eucharist) and believing that the bread is Jesus’s flesh and the wine is his blood. John, who is more careful and more solicitous than the others on such matters of creed, does not mention the wine; this shows clearly that this dogma of theirs is another superstition.
 

                                                          – 92 

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