CONCERNING THE FOUR GOSPELS 

                                                           — 18 — 
                               CONCERNING THE FOUR GOSPELS 

The four Gospels, which form the basis of Christians’ religion and which they name the Bible are not the genuine Injîl-i sherîf which Allâhu ta’âlâ sent down with Jebrâîl (Gabriel) ‘alaihissalâm’. 
These four Gospels are history books written by four different people after Îsâ’s ‘alaihis-salâm’ ascension to heaven. One of them,  (Matthew),  is said to be one of the Apostles. Twelve years after Îsâ’s ‘alaihis-salâm’ ascension to heaven, upon the repeated earnest requests of his friends, he wrote a book titled  (Mîlâd-i-Îsâ),  in which he related what he had seen and heard. 

The second one,  (Mark),  wrote twenty-eight years later what he had heard from the Apostles. The third one, (Luke),  wrote a book of history thirty-two years later in Alexandria in order to narrate what he had heard. The fourth one (John),  is said to have been one of the Apostles. Forty-five years after Îsâ’s ‘alaihis-salâm’ ascension to heaven, he wrote a biography of Îsâ ‘alaihissalâm’. 

The  Injîl  (Evangel), sent down by Allâhu ta’âlâ, was only one Book. It is an absolute fact that that heavenly Book did not contain any contradictory, inconsistent writings. These four books, on the other hand, teem with paradoxical lies. It is written in all of them that Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ was killed by crucifixion. On the other hand, it is declared clearly in Qur’ân al-kerîm that someone else was killed in lieu of him and that Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ was elevated to heaven alive as he was. 

If these four Gospels were really Word of Allâhu ta’âlâ, they would not contain any reports belying one another, for there will not be any paradoxical statements in the Word of Allâhu ta’âlâ. These Gospels contain reports that have nothing to do with the facts heard from Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’, and some of them are reports of events that happened after his ascension to heaven. This fact is admitted by priests, too. The lies in these books are quoted and answered in the book  (Al-a’lâm fî-beyân-i mâfî-dîn-in-Nasârâ), written by Imâm-i-Qurtubî,[1] in the book  (Hidâyat-ul-Hiyârâ  fî-ajwibat-il

[1] Muhammad Qurtubî passed away in 671 [A.D. 1272].

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yahûd-i-wa-n-Nasârâ),  written by Ibn-ul-Qayyim-i Jawziyya,[1] and in the book  (Tahjîl man-harraf al-Injîl),  written by Sâlih Su’ûdî Mâlikî. Also, detailed information is given in the books  (Asâmî-ulkutub)  and  (Kesf-uz-zunûn),  written by Ahmad Efendi of Taşköprü and Kâtib Çelebi ‘rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ alaihim’. Sâlih wrote his book in 942 [A.D. 1535]. 

The genuine Injîl does not exist anywhere. In fact, most priests deny the existence of a heavenly Book called (Injîl). According to a narrative, after Îsâ’s ‘alaihis-salâm’ ascension to heaven, the Jews burned, or somehow destroyed, that book. At that time the Injîl was not widely known yet. For Îsâ’s ‘alaihis-salâm’ period of prophethood was about three years. And those who believed him were quite few, most of whom were illiterate peasants. For this reason, another copy of the Injîl-i-sherîf could not be written. Only, Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ had committed it to his memory. Or, we might as well conjecture that during the destruction of fifty Gospels in the three hundred and twenty-fifth year of the Christian era priests, thinking it was one of those false Gospels, must have destroyed it, too. In those days there were forty to fifty irreconcilable Gospels. There were religious controversies which mostly ended in furious bloodbaths among the upholders of those Gospels. It is written in the ecclesiastical histories that during the trial of Arius, four of those Gospels were sanctioned and the others were disallowed. An Anglican priest conducted a search of the forbidden Gospels, translated the ones he had found into English, and published them in London in 1236 [A.D. 1280], adding a list of the Gospels he had not been able to find. Ahmad Fârisî Efendi, owner of the newspaper  (Al-jawâib),  translated this publication into Arabic. A list of those books called (Gospels) has been added to our book  (Samsâmiyya). 
Because Christians believe that these four Gospels and the books which they possess in the names of  (Taurah)  and  (Zebûr) are heavenly books, we call them  Ahl-i-kitâb  (People of the Book). The statements quoted as having been made by Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ in these four Gospels are of doubtful origin and can never be authentic documents because they are among those narratives called (haber-i-wâhid), versus those authentic narratives called (mutawâtir). 

Mark and Luke, for instance, were disciples to Paul and had never seen Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’. And Paul, in his turn, as Luke writes in the ninth chapter of  (Acts of the 

[1] Ibn Qayyim Muhammad passed away in 751 [A.D. 1350].
 

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Apostles),  had not seen Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ but came forward with the claim that “Jesus revealed himself to him from heaven” after Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ had been elevated to heaven. Nor is it something believable that they wrote the stories they had heard from the Apostles. For they did not give the names and biographies of the people from whom they are supposed to have heard these stories, but wrote them in a manner as if they had seen Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ and heard them from him. Historians classify such stories as lies and slanders. 

For instance, it is written in the twenty-sixth chapter of  (Matthew)  and in the fourteenth chapter of  (Mark) that 

“On the night when the Jews came to arrest Jesus the eleven Apostles who were with him ran away and (Peter),  who was their chief, watched the event from a distance, followed the Jews taking Jesus until they reached the chief Rabbi’s home and then, being frightened, he fled;” 

and it is written in the four Gospels that the Jews arrested Jesus and “treated him in such and such a way” and “he said to them so and so,” in the direct style of a person who saw these events. It is evident that these stories are the lies and slanders that they must have heard from Jews. 

If it should be asserted that 

“Three days later Jesus resurrected from his grave and related the events he had undergone. The stories written in the Gospels, therefore, are not the Jews’ fabrications but Jesus’ own reports;”

this argument will be rebutted by the narrative that 

“As the Jews interred the corpse of the person they had killed on the cross, they realized that it was not Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’, and lest others should find out they secretly exhumed the corpse and buried it somewhere else and then lied and slandered, ‘The Apostles stole the corpse from the grave.’ ” 

They acknowledge themselves that the report stating that “he resurrected from his grave,” is not true. 

It is written in the last chapter of  (Mark),  

“Jesus was resurrected and first showed himself to Mary Magdalene. And she went to the Apostles and told them. They would not believe.”  

(John) writes in the twentieth chapter that even Mary thought that the person she saw was a gardener. 

If it is asserted that “Jesus knew what he was going to experience and told his Apostles that he would resurrect three days later,” 

its answer will be, “Then, they would not have doubted when Mary told them that she had seen him. As a matter of fact, they would have come to his grave and awaited his resurrection.” 

[Today, all Christians believe that the four Gospels sanctioned

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by the Nicene council are the Injîl that had descended from heaven.  Trinity,  written in the Gospel of John, is the basis of their faith. In other words, they say that Jesus is a god or the son of God. They say,

“The single, eternal God loves him very much and does and creates whatever he wishes Him to. Therefore, whatever we need, we ask from him. With this intention, we entreat him and our idols, which represent him. ‘God’ or ‘the son (of God)’ means ‘person loved very much.’ To say that he is the son of God means to say that God loves him very much.” 

People who hold this belief are called  Ahl-i-kitâb  (People of the Book). Those Christians who say that “he (Jesus) is eternal and creates everything from nothing” are  mushrik  (polytheists). 

Since they deny Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’, that is, because they are not Muslims, they are all disbelievers.]

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                                                          — 19 — 

                          JUDAISM — THE TAURAH — TALMUD 

The Îsâwî (Nazarene) religion is a continuation of the Sharî’at of Mûsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’. It will therefore be useful to give some information about Jews and their Holy Book. First, we shall present a brief history of Judaism: 

Ibrâhîm ‘alaihis-salâm’ is one of those Prophets who are called Ulul-azm. He was neither a Jew, nor a Christian. He was a true Muslim. Ibrâhîm ‘alaihis-salâm’ is the forefather of the Israelites, that is, Jews, and of the Arabs. He is at the same time one of the grandfathers of Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’. 

The capital of Chaldea was Babylon. Their kings were called Nemrûd  (Nimrod). At that time Chaldeans worshipped the moon, the sun and stars. They had made various idols to represent these celestial beings. Nimrods, too, were among these idols. Allâhu ta’âlâ sent forth Ibrâhîm ‘alaihis-salâm’ as a Prophet to them. Yet they would not have îmân. They wanted to burn that blessed Prophet in a fire, but Allâhu ta’âlâ made the fire salvation for him. This fire, which they made after piling up wood for many days, became a verdure for him. Although they saw this miracle, most of them would still not have îmân. Ibrâhîm ‘alaihis-salâm’ went to Egypt. Then, commanded by Allâhu ta’âlâ, he returned to Palestine. After Ibrâhîm’s ‘alaihis-salâm’ death, his son, Is-haq (Isaac) ‘alaihis-salâm’, became the Prophet, and after Is-haq ‘alaihis-salâm’ prophethood was granted to his son, Ya’qûb (Jacob) ‘alaihis-salâm’. Another name of Ya’qûb ‘alaihis-salâm’ was Isrâîl (Israel). Therefore, people descending from the twelve sons of Ya’qûb ‘alaihis-salâm’ are called  (Benî Isrâîl),  which means ‘the sons of Isrâîl’, (or Iraelites). Yûsuf (Joseph) ‘alaihissalâm’, one of Ya’qûb’s ‘alaihis-salâm’ sons, was envied by his brothers. They threw him into a well and lied to Ya’qûb ‘alaihissalâm’, saying that he was dead. Then he was saved by some travellers going by the well. They took him out of the well, took him along to Egypt, and sold him as a slave there. His purchaser was Azîz (Potiphar), Egypt’s Minister of the Exchequer. He took Yûsuf ‘alaihis-salâm’ to his home. His wife, Zelîha, fell in love

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with him. But when Yûsuf ‘alaihis-salâm’ refused her, she slandered him. Upon this slander, Yûsuf ‘alaihis-salâm’ was imprisoned in a dungeon. Later, when he interpreted a dream of Pharaoh, the Egyptian Ruler, he was taken out of the dungeon and was made Egypt’s Minister of the Exchequer by the Pharaoh. Yûsuf ‘alaihis-salâm’ brought his father Ya’qûb ‘alaihis-salâm’ and his brothers to Egypt from Canaan, that is, from (today’s) Palestine. The Pharaoh treated Ya’qûb ‘alaihis-salâm’ and his children with respect and deep interest. Thus the Israelites settled in Egypt, where they led a comfortable life for a while. Later, however, they were subjected to countless torments and persecutions and were reduced to slavery. Who saved them from these troubles and took them to the  (Ard-i-Maw’ûd),  that is, to the Promised Land [Palestine], was Mûsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’. 

Mûsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ was raised in Pharaoh’s palace and by Pharaoh himself. When he reached forty years of age, he left the palace and began to live with his kin, especially with his elder brother Hârûn (Aaron). 

One day he saw an Egyptian unbeliever [a gypsy] bullying an Israelite. As he tried to rescue him, the gypsy died. Being frightened, Mûsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ fled to the Median city (Midian) in the vicinity of Tebuk.[1] There, he married the daughter of Shu’ayb (Jethro) ‘alaihis-salâm’, and served him ten years. Then he left for Egypt. On the way, on Mount Tûr (Sinai), he spoke with Allâhu ta’âlâ. When he arrived in Egypt, he invited the Pharaoh to the religion of Allâhu ta’âlâ. He asked him to grant freedom to the Israelites. The Pharaoh refused it and said, “Moses is a powerful magician. He wants to cheat us out of our country.” He asked his viziers what they thought. They advised him to convene the magicians to outvie him. The magicians came and, as the Egyptians watched, they dropped the ropes they were holding in their hands on to the ground. Each of the ropes changed into a snake and began to crawl towards Mûsâ ‘alaihissalâm’. Upon this, Mûsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ left his rod to the ground. It became a gigantic serpent and swallowed (all) the snakes. Bewildered, the magicians became Believers. The Pharaoh became angry and said, “So he was your master. I shall have your hands and feet cut off and hang you all on date branches.” They said, “We believe Mûsâ. We trust ourselves to his Rabb (Allah). Him, alone, do we beg for forgiveness and mercy.” The water 

[1] An Arabian town, about half way between Medina and Damascus.
 

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which the unbelievers had been using became blood. It rained frogs. Cutaneous diseases broke out and spread. Darkness fell and the whole country remained in darkness for three days. Awed by these miracles, the Pharaoh permitted the Israelites to leave Egypt. However, as Mûsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ and the Israelites were on their way to Jerusalem, the Pharaoh repented having let them go and, rallying his army, fell to follow them. The Suez Isthmus opened and the Believers walked to the other side. As the Pharaoh, too, was passing to the other side, the sea closed in, drowning him and his army. The Israelites saw people worshipping an ox on their way, and said to Mûsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’, “We wish to have a god like this.” Mûsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ answered them. “There is no god other than Allâhu ta’âlâ. Allâhu ta’âlâ saved you.” Then they wandered into a wilderness called Tîh, where they lost their way and suffered dire deprivation of food and drink. (Menn) and (Selva), that is, manna and meat, rained down from heaven. They ate these. When he tapped the ground with his rod, water came out. And they drank this water. They hurt Mûsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ by saying. “We are tired of manna and meat. We wish other things such as broad-beans and onions.” For this reason they remained in the wilderness for forty years. Mûsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’, leaving Hârûn ‘alaihis-salâm’ for his place, went to Mount Tûr (Sinai), where he prayed for forty days. He heard the Word of Allâhu ta’âlâ. Allâhu ta’âlâ sent down the Holy Book (Taurah)  and the Ten Commandments inscribed on two tablets. A munafîq (hypocrite) named Sâmirî collected gold wares and ornaments from the people, melted them, and made a gold calf. He said, “This is Moses’ god. Worship this.” So they began to worship it. They would not listen to Hârûn’s ‘alaihis-salâm’ remonstrations. When Mûsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ came back and saw their practices, he was very angry. He cursed Sâmirî. He held his elder brother’s beard and reproached him. They repented and begged him for forgiveness. Mûsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ preached them the Taurah and the Ten Commandments. They began to perform their worships as prescibed in the Taurah. Afterwards, they deviated from the right course again and finally parted into seventy-one sects. 

Mûsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ and his ummat went to the region south of the Dead Sea. He made war against a king named  Ûj bin Ûnq (King of Bashan). He captured the land east of the Sharî’a River. He climbed the mountain opposite Erîha City. He saw the land of Canaan from the distance. Then, leaving his place to Yûshâ
 

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(Joshua) ‘alaihis-salâm’, he passed away there, according to a narrative, 1605 years before the birth of Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’, when he was one hundred and twenty (120) years old. Yûshâ ‘alaihissalâm’ captured Erîha City, and then Jerusalem, from the Amalekites, who were heathens. 

Some time later, Dâwûd (David) ‘alaihis-salâm’ became the king. He recaptured Jerusalem. Thus the most prosperous period in the Jewish history commenced. Afterwards, Suleymân (Solomon) ‘alaihis-salâm’, (who succeeded Dâwûd ‘alaihissalâm’), had the renowned temple, that is, the  Mesjîd-i Aqsâ  (Al Aqsâ) built on the site which had been reserved and prepared by his father. Suleymân ‘alaihis-salâm’ had the  (Tâbût-i-sekîna),  that is, the Ark of the Covenant, which contained the Taurah and the other keepsakes such as the Ten Commandments and the tablets whereon the Ten Commandments (Decalogue) were written, placed in a room of the temple. 

The Jewish nation, who were composed of twelve tribes, parted into two disparate kingdoms after Suleymân’s ‘alaihis-salâm’ death. Ten tribes made up the Israelite Kingdom, (established by Jeroboam), and the remaining two tribes, (namely Judah and Benjamen), formed the Judah Kingdom. Later, indulging in their passions for excess, they swerved from the right way, plunged into depravities, and eventually incurred the Divine Wrath. The Israelite Kingdom was demolished by the Assyrians in 721 B.C., and later the Judah Kingdom was abolished by the Babylonians, in 586 B.C. The Assyrians invaded Babylonia. In 587, the Assyrian King Buht-un-nasar (Nebuchadnezzar) burned and devastated Jerusalem. He killed most of the Jews and exiled the rest to Babylon. During these tumults the heavenly Book, Taurah, was burned. This original Taurah was a huge Book. In other words, it was composed of forty parts. Each part was made up of a thousand sûras (chapters), and each sûra contained a thousand âyats (verses). No one but Uzeyr (Ezra or Esdras) ‘alaihis-salâm’ had memorized this colossal Book. He taught the Taurah to the Jews again. In the course of time, however, it was mostly forgotten, and largely interpolated. Various people wrote whatever they remembered of its verses, and thus a variety of books appeared in the name of Taurah. A rabbi named Azrâ (Ezra) who lived some four hundred years before the birth of Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’, compiled them and wrote today’s Taurah, which is called the Old Testament. When the Iranian king Shîreveyh routed the Assyrians, he permitted the Jews to go back to Jerusalem. After 520 B.C. the
 

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Jews restored the Mesjîd-i-Aqsâ. For some time they lived under Persian domination, then the Macedonians took them under their sway. In 63 B.C. Jerusalem was captured by the Roman General Pompey.[1] He burned and destroyed the Mesjîd-i-Aqsâ. Thus the Jews went under the Romans’ dominance. In 20 B.C. Herod, the Romans’ Jewish governor in Palestine, had the temple rebuilt. Later the Jews revolted against the Roman domination. Yet, in A.D. 70, the Roman general Titus[2] thoroughly burned and destroyed Jerusalem. He turned the city into a pile of ruins. Beyti-muqaddes was burned, too, and only its Western wall remained standing. This wall is now called  (Wailing Wall).  This wall has maintained the national and religious  esprit de corps  in the Jewish community alive for years. Belief in a promised Messiah is another contribution to the prolonged survival of this feeling. The wall was specially protected and the temple was restored by the Byzantines, and then by the Umayyads, and finally by the Ottomans. 

After Titus’ massacres and cruelties, the Jews left Palestine in groups. They were expelled from Jerusalem and its territories. The Jewish slaves were sent to Egypt, where they were ruled as slaves by the Romans. It was an epoch when the Jews spread all over the world. Jewry has adopted two disparate sources of commandments for Judaism: 

1- Written Commandments; 

2- Oral Commandments. 

According to Jews,  Torah  and  Talmud  are the two basic Holy Books. The former contains the written commandments, and the latter includes the oral commandments. 

The book Torah is called the  Old Testament  by Christians. Jews have divided Torah into three sections: 

1-  Taurah,  or Torah (Law, Pentateuch); 

2-  Neviim,  or the Prophets; 

3-  Ketûbîm,  or the Scriptures (Hagiographa). 

Torah is an acronym formed by the initial letters of the Hebrew counterparts of the three words given above. Neviim (the Prophets) is composed of two subdivisions; the Major Prophets, which consists of six[3] books; the Minor Prophets, made up of fifteen books. Ketûbîm, that is, the Scriptures (Writings), is 
[1] Gnaeus Pompey (106-48 B.C.) 

[2] Titus (A.D. 39-81) was the Roman emperor from A.D. 79 to 81. 

[3] This number is four in the Hebrew Bible and in all the modern Bibles, and six in Septuagint, the Greek version, and in Vulgate, the Latin version. These two versions of the Bible include the Apochrypha.
 

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composed of eleven books according to Jews, and fifteen books in Christians’ belief. 

Jews believe that the five books which they call Taurah have been sent by Allâhu ta’âlâ down to Mûsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’. These five books are  (Genesis), (Exodus), (Leviticus), (Numbers), (Deuteronomy). It is written about the old age and death of Mûsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’, how old he was and how he was buried when he was dead and how the Jews mourned for him in Deuteronomy [Deut: 34]. 

How does it happen that these reports, which are about the events that are supposed to have taken place after Mûsâ’s ‘alaihis-salâm’ death, are written in a book which is alleged to have been revealed to Mûsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’? This factual hiatus is one of the clear proofs testifying to the fact that the existing Taurah is not in its pristine purity as it was revealed by Allâhu ta’âlâ and taught by Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’. 

As it is stated in the book (History of the Jews) by H.Hirch Graetzin, a Jewish clergyman, Jews established the  (Assembly of the Seventies)  in order to keep their community strictly obedient to the Pentateuchal commandments, and called the head of this assembly  (Chief Rabbi).  Jewish theologians who teach young Jewish people their religion in schools and preach the Taurah are called  (Scribes).  Some of their explanations and amendments of the Taurah have been inserted into the copies of the Taurah written afterwards. These are the scribes mentioned in the Gospels. Another task of these people is to make Jews obedient to the Taurah. 

There is yet another version of the Taurah, and it is rejected by most Jews. It is called  (Tora ha-Shomranim). Believers of this Torah have always been opposed to the explanations and additions made by these scribes to the Taurah, even if it were a change of one letter. It is reported that there are some six thousand differences between the Taurah possessed by Jews and the Taurah Shomranim. 
Christians use the term  Old Testament  (Ahd-i-Atîk) for the book Torah. Jews reject this term. 

There is no doubt that the book they call Taurah today is not the genuine Taurah revealed to Mûsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ by Allâhu ta’âlâ. There is a duration of two thousand years between the time when the earliest of these copies of the Taurah was written and the time when Mûsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ lived. Mûsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ advised the scholars of his ummat to preserve the Taurah in the Tâbût-i-sekîna (Ark of the Covenant). When Suleymân  ‘alaihis-
 

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salâm’ built the  (Mesjîd-i-Aqsâ), he had the ark put in the temple and had it opened. When the ark was opened, it was seen that it contained only the two tablets on which the  Awâmir-i-Ashere (Ten Commandments) were written. 

A book titled  (Who Wrote The Torah), published in 1987 by Elliot Friedman, a professor in the University of California in U.S.A., stirred up the Jewish and Christian worlds. Professor Friedman explains that the five books composing the Taurah were written by five different theologians and that they were in no way comparable to the original copy of the Taurah revealed to Mûsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’. In the same book, Professor Friedman states that the  (Old) and  (New) (Testaments) of the  (Holy Bible)  are in contradiction with each other, and gives examples. Moreover, Professor Friedman points out that there are inconsistencies in the books, and even in the chapters, making up the Taurah, and adds that a book of that sort could by no means be called a (heavenly Book). There is also a vast stylistic textual difference in the five books making up the Taurah. 

According to Prof. Friedman, today’s Taurah was written by five rabbis who lived several centuries after Mûsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ and later another rabbi named Ezra gathered them together and published them in the name of the original version of the Old Testament. Historian Prof. Friedman’s conclusive remarks can be briefly paraphrased as follows: 

“There are three versions of the Taurah today: The Hebrew version accepted by Jews and Protestants; the Greek version accepted by the Catholic and Orthodox Churches; the Samaritan Pentateuch accepted by the Samaritans.[1] These versions are known as the oldest and the most dependable versions of the Taurah, yet there are innumerable contradictions, both within the versions and between the versions. They contain suggestions of cruelty to people and extremely ugly and unbecoming imputations to Prophets. The real Taurah could by no means be said to have contained these inconsistencies.” 

Richard Simon, a French clergyman, says in his book (Historia Critique du Vieux Testament) that (today’s) Taurah is not the original Taurah revealed to Mûsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ and that it is a compilation of various books written in different times. The clergyman’s book was seized and he was excommunicated. 

[1] People of Samaria, an ancient region west of Jordan.
 

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Dr. Jean Astruc says in his book (Conjectures il parait que Mouse s’est Servi pour composer le livre de la Genese) that each of the five books of the Pentateuch is a different book compiled from various sources. He points out also that the same names in one section are changed and repeated at one or two other places. 

It is written in the eleventh and later verses of the first chapter of Genesis that plants were created before mankind. On the other hand, it is written in the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth and ninth verses of the second chapter that man was created and at that time there were no plants on the earth and that plants were created after the creation of man. On account of his disclosure of contradictions such as this and many other grave errors, Jean Astruc was proclaimed a heretic.

Gottfried Eichhorn published a book in 1775. In this book he says that the five books, including Genesis, are different both in dates and in styles of language. However, Eichhorn and his books were excommunicated. 

Herden, a German poet and philosopher, writes in his work titled (Von Geiste den hebraischen Poesie) that the poems in the book  (Psalms)  of the Old Testament were written by different Hebrew poets in different times and that they were compiled afterwards. He states also that the  (Song of Solomon)  is only a book of carnal and obscene love songs and that the poems in it could not be attributed to such an exalted Prophet as Suleymân ‘alaihis-salâm’. Those who are interested should only take a look at the  (Song of Solomon). 

Owing to the improvements in the studies carried on in the Hebrew language in the nineteenth century, it was proved that the five books included in the Taurah did not belong to Mûsâ ‘alaihissalâm’ and that these Pentateuchal books were compiled in different times. Very many European historians, priests and bishops published works on this subject. 

Dr. Graham Scroggie of the Mood Bible Institute confesses in the book (Is the Bible the Word of God?) that neither the (Old Testament) nor the (New Testament) is the Word of Allah. 

Dr. Stroggie states, “Genesis is full of genealogies. Who was born from whom, how he was born, etc. It always gives information of this sort. Why should these things interest me? What do these things have to do with worships, with loving Allâhu ta’âlâ? How can one be a good person? What is the day of Judgement? Who will call us to account, and how? What should
 

                                                         – 391 

one do to become a pious person? These things have very little reference. For the most part, various fables are related. Before daytime is defined, it begins to tell about the night.” How could a book of this kind ever be the Word of Allah? Today a person who reads the books called  (Torah) by Jews and the  (Old Testament) by Christians will think he is reading a book of sexology teaching ways of indecency, obscenity and immorality, instead of a heavenly book revealed by Allâhu ta’âlâ. Many Western priests and scientists, realizing that these books are not the Word of Allah, have published innumerable books and tried to inform everyone of the fact. The capacity of our book would not let us mention them (all) here.

                                                             – 392 
   
  

                                                        — 20 — 

                                                          TALMUD 

It is the Jewish holy book next to the Taurah in importance. They call this book (Oral Commandments). It comprises two parts: Mishnah and Gemara. 

Mishnah:  Means repetition in Hebrew. It is the first book in which the oral commandments have been formed into canons. According to Judaism, when Allâhu ta’âlâ gave Mûsâ ‘alaihissalâm’ the Taurah  (Written Commandments) on the mount of Tûr (Sinai), He also dictated His  (Oral Commandments)  to him. And Mûsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ intimated these pieces of knowledge to Hârûn  (Aaron),  Yûshâ  (Joshua) and  Eliâzâr  ‘alaihimus-salâm’. And they, in their turn, communicated them to Prophets succeeding them. Eliâzâr is the son of Shu’ayb (Jethro) ‘alaihissalâm’  [Mir’ât-i-kâinât]. It is written in  (Munjid) that Jews call Uzeyr ‘alaihis-salâm’ Azrâ (Ezra, or Esdras according to Apocrypha). 

These pieces of information were conveyed from one generation of rabbis to another. Various books of Mishnah were written in 538 B.C. and A.D. 70. Jewish customs, canonical institutions, debates between rabbis and their personal views were inserted into these books. Thus the Mishnahs became books telling about the personal opinions of rabbis and the discussions among them. 

Akiba, a Jewish rabbi, collected and classified them. His disciple, Rabbi Meir, made additions to them and simplified them. The rabbis succeeding them adopted various methods and rules for the compilation of these narratives. Thus very many narratives and books appeared. Eventually, these confusions reached the Holy Yahûda (Judah ha-Nasi). In order to put an end to these turmoils, Judah wrote the most commonly sanctioned one of these books in the second century of the Christian era. Utilizing the existing versions, especially the version written by Meir, Judah compiled a book in forty years. This book was the final and the most famous  (Mishnah),  which was a compilation of the others. Early Talmudic sages who lived in the first and second
 

                                                             – 393 

centuries of the Christian era and whose views are written in Mishnah are called  Tanna  (pl.  Tannaim),  which means  (Teacher). Judah was one of the last teachers. They are called Judges, too. Rabbis who took part in the compilation of  (Gemara)  are called (Amoraim), which means (Commentators). They are not entitled to dispute against the views of the Teachers (Tannaim); they are only interpreters. Those who made amendments or additions to Talmud were called  (Saboraim),  which means (sages or debaters). Of the commentators and interpreters of Talmud, those rabbis who presided over the Judaic Councils are called  (Geonim),  which means Sanctioners. Those who were not presidents of the Councils were called  (Posekim),  which means Decision Makers or Preferers. 

Rabbis succeeding Judah made additions and commentaries to Mishnah. The language of Mishnah is Neo Hebrew, which evinces Greek and Latin characteristics. 

The purpose in the writing of Mishnah was to promulgate the Oral Commandments, which were complementary to the Taurah, which was accepted as the source of Written Commandments. Afterwards, pieces of information that Judah did not include in the Mishnah he wrote, but which were contained in the Mishnahs written by the other rabbis, were compiled in the name Additions (Tosefta). 

Language used in the books called Mishnah is simpler than that of the Taurah, and differ much both in vocabulary and in their syntactical fashions. Commandments are presented in forms of general rules. Engrossing examples are given. From time to time you come upon factual events in them. In the introduction of commandments, Pentateuchal verses are given as sources. 

Mishnah is composed of six parts: 

1- Zerâim (Seeds); 
2- Moed (Sacred days, e.g. days of feast and fast); 
3- Nashim (Women); 
4Nezikin (Harms); 
5- Kedoshim (Sacred things); 
6- Tehera (Tahârat, cleanliness). 

These parts have been distributed into sixty-three booklets, which, in their turn, were divided into statements. 

Gemara:  Jews had two important religious schools: one in Palestine, and the other in Babylon. In these schools, rabbis called Amoraim (Commentators) tried to explain Mishnah, to rectify contradictions, to search for sources for the rules which were laid, being based on customs and traditions, and to make decisions on factual and theoretical matters. The commentary made by the Babylonian rabbis was called the  (Babylonian Gemara).  This
 

                                                       – 394 

book was written together with Mishnah, and the book thus formed was called the  (Babylonian Talmud).  The commentary made by the rabbis in Jerusalem was called the  (Gemara of Jerusalem).  This Gemara, too, was written together with Mishnah, and the outcome was the book called the  (Talmud of Jerusalem), or the  (Palestinian Talmud). 

According to a narrative, the Palestinian Gemara (or the Gemara of Jerusalem) was completed in the third century of the Christian era. 
The Babylonian Gemara was begun in the forth century A.D., and completed in the sixth century. 

Later on, Mishnah and a copy of Gemara together were called (Talmud), regardless of whether it is of Jerusalem or Babylonian. The Babylonian Talmud was three times as long as the Talmud of Jerusalem. Jews hold the Babylonian Talmud in a higher esteem than the Talmud of Jerusalem. One or two Mishnaic statements sometimes take ten Talmudic pages to explain. Talmud is more difficult to understand than Mishnah. Every Jew has to allot onethird of his religious education to the Taurah, one-third to Mishnah, and one-third to Talmud. 
Rabbis have declared that a person who intends to do something evil will become sinful even if he does not commit it. According to them, a person who intends to do something forbidden by rabbis will become foul. Talmud, which is the source of this belief of theirs, has been called (Ebul-Enjâs=Father of fouls) by Muslims [Hebrew Literature, p. 17]. A person who disbelieves or rejects Talmud is not a Jew according to Jews. Therefore, Jews belonging to the Karaite[1] sect, who accept and adapt themselves only to the Taurah are not considered to be Jews by Jews. 

Jewish priests avoid admitting the fact that there are vast differences, contradictions between the Palestinian and Babylonian Talmuds. The Babylonian Talmud was first printed in 1520-1522 A.D., and the Palestinian Talmud in 1523, in Venice. 

The Babylonian Talmud was translated into German and English, and the Talmud of Jerusalem (Palestinian Talmud) was translated into French. 

Stories and legends occupy thirty per cent of the Babylonian 

[1] Members of this sect, most of whom live in Crimea, reject rabbinical tradition and interpret scriptures literally.
 

                                                           – 395 

Talmud and fifteen per cent of the Talmud of Jerusalem. They call these legends  (Haggadah).  These legends are the essence of Jewish literature. They teach them in their schools. The teaching and learning of the Taurah and Talmud is compulsory in Jewish schools, even in universities. 

Christians are inimically opposed to Talmud and censure it bitterly. 
Since we have already told about the cruelties and persecutions Christians exercised on Jews at various places of our book, we shall not mention them here. However, we shall briefly touch upon the cruelties displayed by Christians towards Jews on account of Talmud: 
In Christian countries like France, Poland and England, copies of Talmud were seized and burned. Jews were prohibited from keeping copies of Talmud even in their homes. The most eminent interpreters of Talmudic rules were the Jewish converts Nicholas Donin and Pablo Christiani. Pablo Christiani lived in France and in Spain, in the fourteenth century of the Christian era. In a debate held in 1263 in the Barcelona city of Spain, the rabbis  (could not answer)  the questions they were asked on the rigid principles and writings in Talmud; they could not defend Talmud. 

As it is stated in the book  (Al-Kenz-ul-Mersud fî Qawâid-itTalmud),  it is written in Talmud that Îsâ ‘alaihis-salâm’ is in the depths of Hell, between pitch and fire, that Hadrat Maryam (Mary) committed fornication with a soldier named Pandira, that churches are full of filth, that priests are like dogs, that Christians must be killed, etc. 
In 927 [A.D. 1520], with the Pope’s permission, the Babylonian Talmud was printed, which was followed by the printing of the Talmud of Jerusalem three years later. And thirty years after this a series of disasters befell Jewry. On September 9, 1553, all the copies of Talmud found were burned in Rome. This example was followed in the other Italian cities. In 1554, Talmud and the other Hebraic books were subjected to censorship. In 1565 the Pope forbid even the utterance of the word ‘Talmud.’ 

Sometime between 1578 and 1581 Talmud was printed once again, in Basel city. In this last edition, some treatises were deducted, statements censuring Christianity were left out, and quite a number of words were substituted. Afterwards, popes resumed their operations of seizing copies of Talmud. 

Hakem II, the ninth of the Andalusian Umayyad Sultans,
 

                                                    – 396 

ordered rabbi Joseph Ben Masesa to translate Talmud into Arabic. After being translated and read, this Arabic version was named (Filth placed in a case). Hakem II passed away in 366 [A.D. 976]. 

The Karaite Jews have rejected Talmud and accepted it as a heresy. According to Talmud, a woman cannot be admitted to religious schools. For she is flighty mentally and therefore is not liable to religious education. The statement, “He who teaches his daughter the Taurah will have taught her a vice,” belongs to rabbi Eliazer [Mishnah; part Nashim (Women); section Sotak: 216]. The Jewish rabbi Mûsâ bin Meymun (Moses Maimonides) stated that what the book really meant in that statement was Talmud, not the Taurah. 

Talmud professes that astrology is a branch of knowledge most influential in human life. According to Talmud, “The solar eclipse is an ill omen [Evil-Sign] for peoples.” It asserts, on the other hand, that the lunar eclipse is an evil sign for Jews. Talmud teems with sorceries and auguries. It associates everything with demons. Rabbi Rav Hunr says, “Each of us has ten thousand demon companions on his right, and ten thousand demons on his left.” Rabbi Rabba says, “The congestion of crowds, during preaches in synagogues, is because of demons. Our clothes wear out because demons rub themselves against them. Breaking of feet is, again, because of demons.” It is written in Talmud that demons dance on the horns of oxen, that the devil cannot harm a person reading the Taurah, that the fire of Hell will not burn the sinful ones of Israelites. 

Again, it is written in Talmud that the sinful ones of the Israelites will burn for twelve months in Hell, that those who deny life after death and the sinful ones of other races will remain eternally in bitter Hell torment, and that the worms of their bodies will not die and their fire will not go out. 

Other rabbis state in Talmud, again, that the soul will not be interrogated after parting from the body, that the body is responsible for the sins, that it is out of the question for the soul to be responsible for the body. Another rabbi objects to this in Talmud, again. 

It is written in Talmud that “Some rabbis are capable of creating men and watermelons.” 

It is one of the Talmudic narratives that “A rabbi changed a woman into a female ass.
 

                                                              – 397 

Then he mounted her and rode to the market place. Then another rabbi changed her back to her former state.” 

Talmud contains very many rabbinic legends and myths involving serpents, frogs, birds and fish. According to Talmud, for one, “There lived a fierce animal in the forest. The Byzantine Kaiser wished to see this animal. The animal made for Rome and, when it reached a distance of four hundred miles from the city, it roared, whereon the walls of Rome fell.” 

Another Talmudic legend narrates that “There lived a one-year-old ox in the forest. It was as big as Mount Sinai. Being too big to get on board (Noah’s Ark), Noah (Nûh ‘alaihis-salâm’) tied it to the ship by its horns. There was another giant too big for the Ark: this time a man by the name of (Avc), who was the owner of a territory called Bashan (Bolan). He mounted the ox. Avc was a king and a descent of Amalekites, born from a terrestrial woman married to an angel. His feet were forty miles long.” And many other quite illogical, implausible fabrications. … 

Another Talmudic episode alleges that “Titus entered the Temple, drew his sword, and tore to pieces the curtain of the Temple. Blood came out of the curtain. To punish him, a mosquito was sent down and entered his brain. Then the mosquito in his brain grew as big as a pigeon. When Titus was dead his skull was opened and it was seen that the mosquito had a mouth of copper and feet of iron.” 

Other examples of Talmudic fabrications are, “People who object to rabbinic teachings will be punished;” “If a Jew testifies for a non-Jew against a Jew, he will be cursed;” “An oath administered by a Jew to a non-Jew is not binding at all.” 

The Talmudic chapters called ‘Hoshem hamishpat’, ‘Yoreh deah’, ‘Sultan Arah’ contain the following statements, “Shedding non-Jews’ blood means offering a sacrifice to God.;” “All sorts of sins committed for the cause of Judaism are permissible on condition that they shall be secret;” “Only Jews are considered to be human. Non-Jews are all beasts;” “God has allotted all worldly riches only for Jews;” “The injunction, ‘Do not steal,’ is valid only when Jews are involved. Lives and property of other races are free (for Jews);” “Chastity and honour of non-Jews are halâl (permissible) (for Jews). The injunction against fornication is intended only for Jews.”; “If a Jew has stolen a non-Jew’s property or swindled him of his job, he has done a good job;” “Informing a non-Jew about our commandments is equal to betraying the whole Jewry to the executioner. When non-Jews are

  

                                                          – 398 
informed about our teachings against them, they will send us to exile;” “No work is baser than agriculture.” 
The Talmudic conception concerning the Messiah expected by Jewry is as follows: “The Messiah shall crush non-Jews under the wheels of his chariots. There shall be a great war and two-thirds of the world’s population shall die. Jewry shall achieve the victory, and they shall use the losers’ weapons for fuel for seven years. 

“Other nations shall obey Jews. The Messiah shall refuse Christians and he shall destroy them all. Jews shall take possession of the treasuries of all nations and they shall be very rich. When Christians are annihilated, other nations shall take warning and become Judaized. Thus Jewry shall become dominant all over the world and there shall be no one left unjudaized in any part of the world.” 
 

                                                   WARNING —  

As this book,  (could not answer),  shows, Christians and Jews always assailed Muslims and endeavoured to annihilate Islam by means of publication and state forces. As a preliminary arrangement for the success of their tactical assaults, they first extinguished Islamic knowledge and annihilated Islamic scholars, thus making sure of an ignorant younger generation utterly unaware of Islam. In the course of time some of these Muslim children fell into the traps set by Christian missionaries and insidious communists, believed their falsifications and lies and, after an education provided in total deprivation of opportunities to learn about Islam’s virtues and superiorities or at least the renowned and honourable accomplishments of their ancestors, they eventually came into a position which offered them an easy competence to talk and write freely on matters of importance. They began to make, (and are still making), ignorant and foolish statements here and there. For instance, they say, “Our grandfathers adopted laws of deserts, confined themselves into intertia within Islam’s dingy fetters which impede mind and reason, led a life of the Early Ages. Being estranged from the world under such inculcations as, ‘There is life after death. There is blessing and merry-making in Paradise and burning fire in Hell,’ they put their trust in an unknown being whom they called God and lived in a lingering apathy and reluctance like animals. We are not regressive like them. We are university graduates. We are following the European and American civilizations and their scientific and technological improvements. We are leading a life of pleasure and merry-making. We are not killing our time with such things as namâz and fasting. What is a modern and
 

                                                        – 399 

enlightened person’s business in mosques, in Mecca? What is the point in turning away from such pleasures as music, dancing, drinking and gambling in mixed groups and wasting one’s lifetime in tedious occupations such as namâz, fasting, mawlid, etc.? Who has seen Paradise or Hell? Who has gone there? Is a fancy or illusion worth being preferred to this sweet life which is for us to enjoy?” We hope that these poor people, after reading our book and seeing that those European and American statesmen, politicians, scientists, and millions of western people whom they consider to be enlightened, progressive and modern and earnestly try to imitate are actually people who believe in rising after death, in Paradise and Hell, in Allâhu ta’âlâ and His Prophets and rush in large crowds to churches to pray on Sundays; will come to reason and realize that they have been deceived.

______________________ 
HÜSEYN HİLMİ IŞIK, ‘rahmatullâhi ’alaih’ Hüseyn Hilmi Işık ‘rahmatullâhi ’alaih’ publisher of the Hakikat Kitabevi Publications, was born in Eyyub Sultan, Istanbul in 1329 (A.D. 1911). 

Of the one hundred and forty-four books he published, sixty are in Arabic, twenty-five are in Persian, fourteen Turkish, and the others are the English, French, German, Russian, and other versions of his books.

Hüseyn Hilmi Işık ‘rahmatullâhi ’alaih’ guided by Sayyid ’Abd-ul-Hakîm Arwâsî a profound scholar of Islam and was perfect in virtues of Tasawwuf, and was capable of guiding disciples in a fully mature manner; possessor of glories and wisdom), was a competent, great Islamic scholar fully authorized to guide people to happiness, and he passed away during the night between October 25, 2001 (8 Sha’bân 1422) and October 26, 2001 (9 Sha’bân 1422). He was buried at Eyyub Sultan, where he had been born.
                                                           – 400 

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